BIOLOGY 1B Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Evolution, Bacteria, Time

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Berkeley
Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1B
BIOLOGY 1B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Evolution Lecture 1: Foundations of Evolutionary Biology
Biophilia: Humans naturally are interested in life
BIG BANG
Origin of the Universe- 13.8 Billion years ago (Ga)
Earth came to form a mass 4.6 Ga
After Earth formed, origin of life and ecological systems- 3.6 Ga
o Prokaryotes and bacteria
o Stromatolites structures that can still be found on Earth today
Early stromatolites may be terrestrial rather than aquatic
Little pillows/mattresses
o N2, O2, CO2, H2O, CH4, H2S, NH3 come out of volcanos and change the atmosphere of the
Earth
Organisms adapt to new circumstance
Chauvet Cave (Southern France) - 32 thousand years ago (32ka)
Footprints discovered
Cranium on pedestal
Ursus spelaeus- Bears in caves
o Painting found in Chauvet
o Genus species
Artists depict structures of animals and how the species looked
o Pianting of lion like creatures
o Pantheo leo spelea similar to African lion
o Pantheo spelea- own species
Aristotle- Plato’s disciple
Father of biology
Dissections, collect organisms, knew that whales were mammals because they made milk
Placed organisms into categories to show relationships
Great Chain of Being- Universal Hierarchy
Humans generally somewhere in middle- heaven on top, underworld on bottom
Nicolas Steno (1600s)- Law of Superposition
Studies organisms and geology from a theological position
Was delivered a giant shark caught by fisherman
o Steno recognized shark teeth as “tongue stones”
Synthesized that tongue stones must be ancient animals teeth
Fossils!
Tongue stones were found in mountains
Law of Superposition: analyzed geological strata in mountain sediment layers
Lower layers are newer and higher layers are older
Age of Discovery
Western Europe was exploring world during the 15th and 17th centuries
James Cook- 3 voyages
Tremendous number of new objects coming to scientist attention
Carl Linnaeus- Natural Theology
1700s
Bionomial Nomenclature- Keep books and names organized (Taxonomy)
o Systema Nature
o Creates universal scientific language to name
William Paley- The Argument from Design
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In creating the world, the creator enunciated it’s mind
o By studying the creations, you are understanding the creator
o Special creation and adaption
o If you encounter an organism, all its parts interact harmoniously and successfully it must have a
designer that was intelligent that made it
Organisms are specially created
Form fits function
The form of a creature, fits how it functions in the world
o It’s morphology matches ecology
Birds with talons- eats big fish
Gull- wedged feet to paddle
Loon has curved back to carry baby
James Hutton- Gradualism
Earth changes slowly and incrementally to achieve massive change
o Ex. Grand Canyon
o Therefore, Earth must be very old
Georges Cuvier- Paleontology and Extinction
Studies fossils in Paris
Lot of creatures are no longer on the Earth
o Creatures go extinct
Jean Lamarck- Mechanism of Evolution
1. Principle of use and disuse
2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Erasmus Darwin- Zoonomia or the Laws of Organic Life
Charles Lyell- Uniformitarianism
The laws that we see acting today are the same laws acting in the past
Need to be able to observe things now to use as explanations for the past
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Document Summary

Aristotle- plato"s disciple: father of biology, dissections, collect organisms, knew that whales were mammals because they made milk, placed organisms into categories to show relationships. Great chain of being- universal hierarchy: humans generally somewhere in middle- heaven on top, underworld on bottom. Age of discovery: western europe was exploring world during the 15th and 17th centuries, tremendous number of new objects coming to scientist attention. 1700s: bionomial nomenclature- keep books and names organized (taxonomy, systema nature, creates universal scientific language to name. In creating the world, the creator enunciated it"s mind: by studying the creations, you are understanding the creator, special creation and adaption. It"s morphology matches ecology: birds with talons- eats big fish, gull- wedged feet to paddle, loon has curved back to carry baby. James hutton- gradualism: earth changes slowly and incrementally to achieve massive change, ex. Grand canyon: therefore, earth must be very old.

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