CHEM 3B Quiz: Outline 1_30_17

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University of California - Berkeley

Eye Care Professionals Dr. P. Harvey, OD, MPH Optometry 10 History of Medicine and Optometry Early Man - Prehistoric Times • sought supernatural explanations for catastrophic events; felt demons/spirits control events ° trephination: when holes are cut into peoples heads to release evil spirits Hippocrates (460 - 377 BC) • Greek physician who is considered to be the Father of Medicine • developed humoral theory that attributed disease to the various fluids of the body; that is, disease was caused by physical causes (the body humors) rather than demons • documented signs and symptoms and analyzed possible causes and associations (epidemiology) • developed ethical principles that the physician's primary obligation was to the patient (Hippocratic oath) Medicine in the Middle Ages (~400 - ~1400 AD) • period between the decline of Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages ° Dark Ages (aka Medieval Period) for first 600 years • Western Europe: because of raids and wars, cities were walled in defense which became filthy and disease-ridden; very little advancement in medicine ° impact of the Black Plaque Renaissance Period (~1400s - 1500s) • represents the end of the Dark and Middle Ages and the beginning of times of medical and scientific discoveries as well as cultural advancements Anesthesia • in 1830-40s, 'ether frolics' and 'laughing gas parties' were popular • physician used ether on a reluctant party-going patient • its success quickly spread to the rest of the world Antisepsis and Sanitation • Joseph Lister (1827-1912) England ° in 1870s was impressed by Pasteur's work and felt bacteria was in air and around patients ° developed antisepsis used in hospitals and for surgery and greatly decreased mortality • Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) England ° worked in military hospitals; was appalled by conditions in which the wounded were kept ° created new standards for the care of wounded and sick; decreased mortality rate ° founded fist school of nursing Early health care providers and physicians • various unregulated groups (allopaths, homeopaths, naturopaths, botanical healers, medical physicians) • physicians - elevated professional standards (American Medical Association) •
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