CIV ENG 11 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Bituminous Coal, Ap 42 Compilation Of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Green Economy

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Published on 11 Oct
School
Berkeley
Department
Civil And Environmental Engineering
Course
CIV ENG 11
Professor
1
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
CE11 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY, SPRING 2020
HOMEWORK 5
DUE FRIDAY, MARCH 20, 2020 (TOTAL: 100 POINTS)
*******SOLUTIONS*********
Fuel selection for electricity generation and air pollution (20 points)
1. Uncontrolled emission factors and heating value data for bituminous coal, residual fuel oil and
natural gas burned in utility boilers are given in Table 1. Consider a thermal electric power plant
that generates an average of 400 MW of electricity with an overall efficiency of 38%. Determine
for each fuel the annual uncontrolled mass of each of the pollutants (in units of metric tons per
year) that would be emitted from such a power plant. Please interpret your results. Is our analysis
complete? What else needs to be taken into consideration to assess which fuel is the cleanest? (20
points)
The following will be useful:
Energy (MJ) = Power (MW) * Time (s)
The overall efficiency of the power plant is:
  
 
1 gal = 3.785x10-3 m3
Table 1: Uncontrolled emission factors and heating value data
Bituminous coal Residual fuel oil Natural gas
(pulverized, 1.8% S) (no. 6, 2% S)
Heating value: 33.25 MJ/kgfuel 41809.8 MJ/m3 41.9 MJ m-3
Emission factors:
CO2 2.38 kg/kgfuel 11.6 kg/galfuel 2.2 kg/m3
PM 31 kg/Mgfuel 2.9 kg/m3 16 x 10-6 kg/m3
SO2 35 kg/Mgfuel 38 kg/m3 9.6 x 10-6 kg/m3
NO 6.9 kg/Mgfuel 8 kg/m3 8800 x 10-6 kg/m3
Amount of fuel needed to cover the annual energy requirements:
 
400 
3600 24 365
0.38 

Bituminous coal : 998  10
Residual fuel oil : 794  10
Natural gas: 792262 10
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Annual uncontrolled mass of each of the pollutants:
Bituminous coal Residual fuel oil Natural gas
CO2 (metric tonnes/yr) 2375876 2433309 1742977
PM (metric tonnes/yr) 30946 2303 13
SO2 (metric tonnes/yr) 34939 30171 8
NO (metric tonnes/yr) 6888 6352 6972
Natural gas is by far the cleanest of the three fuel choices regarding the direct emissions from the
power production. Emissions of carbon dioxide are significantly lower. Emissions of sulfur dioxide is
far lower, 5 orders of magnitude less than those of the residual fuel oil and bituminous coal. Particle
emissions are also orders of magnitude lower, while NO emissions are comparable.
However, this does not take into consideration life cycle emissions for generating power.
Electricity power mix and carbon emissions (32 points)
2. The electricity grid mix varies based on your location. For example, using a kettle to boil water in
California results in more or less carbon dioxide than in Oregon. In this assignment, compare the
emissions associated with electricity in Berkeley, CA and an unknown location in Oregon. You
will find the following references helpful in completing this problem:
For Berkeley and for California:
PG&E (2019), Where your electricity comes from,
https://www.pge.com/pge_global/common/pdfs/your-account/your-bill/understand-your-
bill/bill-inserts/2019/1019-Power-Content-Label.pdf, Accessed 3/3/2020 at 5:00pm
For Oregon:
Oregon Department of Energy (2020), Electricity Mix in Oregon,
https://www.oregon.gov/energy/energy-oregon/Pages/Electricity-Mix-in-Oregon.aspx,
Accessed 3/3/2020 at 6:00pm
a. Compare the electricity mix in Berkeley, CA versus the average mix for the entire state of
California. Create a table comparing the two, i.e., show how the two electricity mixes differ.
(9 points)
Berkeley has 0% coal, a lot higher percentage nuclear and corresponding lower percentage
of natural gas than the rest of California. Berkeley also has higher percentage of solar and
lower of wind compared to CA.
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b. What is the average electricity grid mix for Oregon and how does it compare to the average
mix in California? Does anything stand out? (4 points)
Refer to the table in part a. Oregon has coal as a large portion of their grid mix, they also
have a much higher percentage of large hydro; but they have a lower natural gas percentage
than CA.
c. Using the emission factors provided in a lecture slide, calculate the daily total CO2 emissions
(using a weighted average emissions of the electricity mix) of a person who uses 35 kWh of
electricity per day (at home) and drives 30 miles a day with an electric vehicle that has an
efficiency of 3.6 miles/kWh for Berkeley, CA, the State of California, and the State of
Oregon, respectively. What do you observe, which of the three geographic entities has the
lowest total CO2eq/day, and what percent of the total is due to electricity use (at home) and
what percent is due to driving?
Hint: Use the total average CO2eq emission factor (average gCO2eq/kWh) for the “unspecified”
and “other” sources, and use the hydro CO2eq emission factor for both small and large hydro
plants. (19 points)
Tables of life cycle emissions for each category:
Source gCO2 eq/kWh
Coal 1059
Natural gas 696
Oil 957
Nuclear 17
Hydro 55
Biomass 56
PV 64
Wind 31
Geothermal 28
Average: 329
Source Percent g CO2 eq Percent g CO2 eq Percent g CO2 eq
Biomass 4 2.24 2 1.12 0.59 0.33
Geotherm
a
4 1.12 5 1.4 0.11 0.03
Small Hy
d
3 1.65 2 1.1 0 0.00
Solar 18 11.52 11 7.04 0.57 0.36
Wind 10 3.1 11 3.41 4.98 1.54
Coal 0 0 3 31.77 26.09 276.29
Large Hy
d
13 7.15 11 6.05 44.81 24.65
Natural g
a
15 104.4 35 243.6 19.31 134.40
Nuclear 34 5.78 9 1.53 3.02 0.51
Petroleum 0 0 0 0 0.19 1.82
Other 0 0 0 0 0.33 1.09
Unknown 0 0.00 11 36.21 0 0
Carbon dioxide per kWh 136.96 333.23 441.02
Berkeley California Oregon
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Document Summary

Due friday, march 20, 2020 (total: 100 points) Fuel selection for electricity generation and air pollution (20 points: uncontrolled emission factors and heating value data for bituminous coal, residual fuel oil and natural gas burned in utility boilers are given in table 1. Consider a thermal electric power plant that generates an average of 400 mw of electricity with an overall efficiency of 38%. Determine for each fuel the annual uncontrolled mass of each of the pollutants (in units of metric tons per year) that would be emitted from such a power plant. What else needs to be taken into consideration to assess which fuel is the cleanest? (20 points) Energy (mj) = power (mw) * time (s) The overall efficiency of the power plant is: (cid:1831)(cid:1858)(cid:1858)(cid:1861)(cid:1855)(cid:1861)(cid:1857)(cid:1866)(cid:1855)(cid:1877)(cid:3404) (cid:1831)(cid:1864)(cid:1857)(cid:1855)(cid:1872)(cid:1870)(cid:1861)(cid:1855)(cid:1861)(cid:1872)(cid:1877) (cid:1868)(cid:1870)(cid:1867)(cid:1856)(cid:1873)(cid:1855)(cid:1857)(cid:1856) (cid:1834)(cid:1857)(cid:1853)(cid:1872)(cid:1861)(cid:1866)(cid:1859) (cid:1874)(cid:1853)(cid:1864)(cid:1873)(cid:1857) (cid:3400)(cid:1843)(cid:1873)(cid:1853)(cid:1866)(cid:1872)(cid:1861)(cid:1872)(cid:1877) (cid:1867)(cid:1858) (cid:1858)(cid:1873)(cid:1857)(cid:1864) Table 1: uncontrolled emission factors and heating value data. Amount of fuel needed to cover the annual energy requirements: (cid:1832)(cid:1873)(cid:1857)(cid:1864)(cid:3404)400 (cid:1839)(cid:1836)(cid:1871) (cid:3400)(cid:4666)3600 (cid:3400)24(cid:3400)365(cid:4667)(cid:1871)

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