State dept after 1924: Visa authority. Europeans needed visas too (Jews).
First illegal immigrants after 1882 were Chinese.
Hoover called for enforcement of LPC clause bc he said democracy has spread, no longer need for US asylum.
1924 Reed-Johnson Act had LPC, prevented Jews.
Operation Wetback was PR success. 1mil apprehended, some sent back. In 1955 INS said problem gone.
Hart-Cellar Act: Family reunification, labor needs. Brain drain in developing countries. Educated people leave. Wealth transfer.
McCarren-Walter Act: Goal was to maintain US ethnic makeup. Quota system for Asian countries. Tiny quotas. Racial bars to
“Indigestible blocs”: Pat McCarren, justification for McW act.
Truman denounced it, vetoed it, wanted to extend helping hand. Cruel, absurd. Eisenhower also, blamed Truman for it.
-- 1948 Displaced Persons Act, McCarran’s 1950 Internal Security Act
Refugee Act of 1980: 50,000 admitted, resettlement program, 2 year wait time before permanent residence, used UN definition of
Immigration Control Act of 1986: Border security, employer sanctions (designed to fail bc no ID system, voluntary web-based
verification system, bad enforcement); farm worker visa program; amnesty for pre-1982 farm workers (Alan Simpson’s 3-legged
Immigration Act of 1990: backlash: Recession, terrorism, Prop 187 (services for illegals), Prop 227 (ESL students)
Bracero Program: 4.6mil workers, were not “easily returned”/repatriated.
Repatriation for Mexicans and Latinos. US pay for transportation home, makes them LPC.
Btw WW2 and HC Act, blacks migrated south