NE STUD 144 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Materialism, Shahada, Transcendentalism

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NE STUD 144
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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-Hadith: A statement, an action, or a consent of the prophet to somebody else’s statement or
action; based on Islam, Iman, and Ihsan
-Islam: outward actions
-Iman: faith (inward)
-Ihsan: perfection of both of the above
Five pillars of Islam
1. Profession of faith: to testify that there is no God but God and Muhammad is the
messenger of God
Islamic used to describe a period, art, history, etc. vs Muslim (refers to the person)
2. Prayers: 5 times a day; correspond to earth moving on its axis, around the sun
3. Charity: pay 2.5% of wealth of charity (Zakat)
4. Fasting during the month of Ramadan
5. Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca built by prophet Ibrahim; process of 4 days
Doing these actions to regulate the inward state
Iman (articles of faith)
1. Belief in the existence of God
2. Belief in the existence of angels
3. Belief in the divine books that God sent to mankind (Quran, Torah, Bible, etc); every
human received a revelation of God
4. Belief in the human prophets; Quran mentions 25 prophets by name; every human group
has a prophet that speaks to it in its own tongue; Quran said that 114,000 were sent to
mankind; all languages point to the divine*
5. Belief in the day of judgement at the end of time, which involves a physical resurrection
of the soul; all humans taken into account for their deeds
6. Belief in predestination in God’s knowledge, not in the human knowledge; God has all
knowledge of what was, what will be, and all possibilities; it’s all “now”; God is outside of
time and is therefore not a subject of time; we experience time in linearity with the
possibility of making multiple choices; God chose the multiplicity of possibiliites. Upon
the choice you make, God made an choice for you; align your intention with God’s;
annihilate thyself (earthly self interest) to align this intention
*islam: every prophet came to preach the universal islam (that there is one God); how each
community fulfills this differs
Islam: the particular tradition originating from Muhammad that he practices with his community
Ihsan-one of the terms that describe Sufism; perfection of the inward and outward
“To be awake”
this word is one way to define Sufism
to worship God as if you seem Him or as if you’re witnessing Him; if you’re not
witnessing Him, then to be aware that He is witnessing you and that makes you realize
that God is with you wherever you are
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To seek the possibility in witnessing the divine in everything you are
witnessing/engaging in the world, humans, creation are forms that point to the divine
if you contemplate creation, it should point you to the divine
the world is a signpost of the creator of the world
awareness and consciousness towards the creative powers/multiplicity of God
constantly present in the now
Sufi tradition is based upon the remembrance of God
remembrance is what was given to you by the spirit of God before entering the womb
Insan: human being in Arabic
Root of the word: humans’ forgetfulness of their primary obligation of remembering God
Sufi definitions: each period of time has their own definitions (reflect the social, political,
economic circumstances of the time)
-sufism is remembrance of God
-sufism is constant awareness of God in all affairs
Other technical definitions
- To grasp the reality and renounce that which is in the hands of men (yr 149; this was a
period where affluence was present)
- Actions should be to God only; and he should be with God in a way that is known to God
only; (yr 215; period where people were showing off their faith/witnessing; boastfulness
is as problematic as absence of faith; people were competing with who has more
followers)
- He that keeps a pure heart toward God; can’t desire both God and the world; can’t mix
intentions; yr 227
- Sufis are who preferred God to everything so that God preferred them to everything; yr
245
- When the Sufi speaks, his language is the essence of his state and only that specific
state; he speaks the thing without being that thing; when he’s silent, the behavior
interprets his state (each Sufi goes from one spiritual state to another)*; making a
statement not reflective of your state is a claim of ostentation; yr 245
- The sufi is not defiled by anything and everything is purified by him; the world is in the
hand but is not in the heart; anything that interacts with the Sufi is purified by him; yr 245
- Sufism is a total discipline that must be undertaken; yr 265
- The Sufi treats everything equally (gold=dirt); is purged by defilement
- To eat little, take rest with God, and to flee from men; to control sexual desire and
consumption
*Conditions: things that occur within states
State: when you achieve it, it’s fixed in general
Year 1 of Islamic calendar (lunar calendar, 354-355 days) =622 CE (365 days)
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