a. Global governance.docx

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University of California - Berkeley
Political Science

Global Governance Introduction: o States were thought to be relatively independent, autonomous actors  with progression of int’l relations: thought more about cooperation, working together to do things they could not do alone, expanding the number of actors not just states but int’l organizations/ institutions that help states cooperate (NGOs and non-state actors). o Discussion about states cooperating, states working with other actors, and other actors working without states has increased over time; cooperation & number of actors has all increased o Some argue: int’l relations isn’t independent actors doing their own thing except when cooperation is really needed but a lot of cooperation, greater connectedness, greater role for non-state actors for some this means the decreased importance/centrality of the state I. Three Trends (in this discussion of more actors essentially more int’l affairs) 1. More issues o Overtime, more issues on the int’l agenda today than there used to be that states cannot deal with alone o Issues that don’t respect state border Ex) environment issues, AIDs or other issues of disease, nuclear proliferation, international drug trafficking, various monetary issues, terrorism, refugee crises, etc. 2. More actors, and or more rules –fed by the first trend o With more issues, int’l organizations & NGOs are creating more rules and laws to deal with them *International organizations- members are states *NGOs- not linked directly with governmental states o The shift to wider roles for these types of actors is from the demand of states placed on issues they can’t deal with alone (demand has spurred supply) discussion about the capacity of states being tested 3. “Domestic” issues on international agenda- see more issues that used to be considered the sole business of sovereign states on international agendas o Human rights: ways people are treated, in particular by their own govt. used to be the government’s own sovereign business, a purely domestic agenda BUT today, countless international human rights laws that say people have rights against their governments exist, on the international agenda! o Often in tension with the value of sovereignty (what a state does in it borders is its own business) o Today international laws are sometimes not just their business, sometimes various int’l actors will take action against the state o All 3 trends are driven/aided by technological changes that make instantaneous and inexpensive changes possible, travel easier, etc. o These trends (and more) have led people to talk about global governance (not government): a framework of rules and actors that deal with global problems; refers to a new form of collective action that includes coordinated actions between states, often int’l organizations/ institutions, NGOs, transnational communities of experts (epistemic communities) etc. o Some would say it already exists, some would say it is emerging Global Governance o Some argue a global civil society exist alongside and separate from state to state relations (not the same thing as global governance)possible because we are more aware and reach out for help/expertise, people can participate in state politics going around the state arguably easier than they used to be able to o What does this mean? Clearly there are more issues that states can’t deal with successfully alone, more domestic issues on the international agenda, and more actors wanting a say –how do we think about this? II. 2 ends of a spectrum as a starting point 1. Strong state crowd: state is strong and powerful & other actors aren’t central, not taking power away from states nor trying to, couldn’t replace states even if they wanted to o States are still the entity and what non-state actors aspire to develop into Ex) Even with the EU, people are not giving up on being German or French, continue to be loyal to states; states sometimes even break up but into smaller states o Lots of NGOs, but what they wish to accomplish must be done through states who hold power o Global governance is really government actors coordinating with each other; may be not able to accomplish what they used to be able to do alone, but still doing it o To weak state crowd: They have an idea of sovereignty that never existed and base an argument on a false starting point; it was never the case that states had absolute power to do anything within their borders – o Content of sovereignty has evolved over time, but problems have always been posed to the state due to the movement of ideas, good, money, etc. States do control less than what is used to, but it controls more of some things Ex) Many govt. less involved with controlling religions or monetary affairs, but more involved with taxation and government expenditures o Look at the 3 incidences through this lens a) Rwanda- o Weak states crowd was true: NGOs were critical, states didn’t care enough to do anything; o BUT in the end, that lack of care was what mattered: the NGOs on their own were helpless, only thing that could have stopped the genocide was another big state with a powerful military (even the UN Peacekeepers were authorized by states were powerless because states didn’t empower them to do more, UN has no army at their power)only states could end the genocide but chose not to, therefore genocide continued b) Environment issues o Weak states crowd is true: Rio Earth Summit o BUT those environment NGOs ultimately wanted states to sign an agreement to regulate the environment o NGOs can raise awareness, draw up documents, etc. but the only way to incite change, to stop people form burning fuel is if they tax gas, if the GOVERNMENT acts through national legislation, (US didn’t want to comply to the Kyoto Protocol so they didn’t) Global Governance c) AIDs o NGO coalition did indeed pressure govt. to support AID treatment o BUT again, it was the government they needed o Ex) Until Chinese government officially acknowledged HIV-AIDS was an issue, nothing happened o Ex) Power of drug companies –another non-state actor –kept prices high which resulted in poor states unable to afford them BUT states still had power, Brazilian govt. broke the patent law to make cheap drugs and when the drug companies complained, Brazil, a powerful emerging market, was able to scare them down 2. Weak state crowd o Seeing the beginning of the end of the Westphalia era, withering away of the state, weakening and impending demise of the state o Past: world with territorially fixed states, anything with value happened within borders; govt.= absolute authority within borders and no one was above them o TODAY: many resources and threats that matter circulate with little regard for borders, like money or pollution; share power with int’l organization, big businesses, NGOs  Technically the sovereign state is the highest authority, but the int’l system is pushing states more and more to abide by the decision made outside out of necessity, ex) IMF o Sometimes state is no longer the highest authority Ex) US didn’t like what Serbia was doing in Kosovo, bombed them o Argue that globalization & previously mentioned trends led to drastic changes in perceptions of community and belonging: main association and identity is not necessarily tied with the state as it used to be 1) Integration- EU, where the states have created a super national institution that makes decisions in opposition by some of their member states, begin to lose their height association with their state, identified as European (passports and money) 2) Fragmentation- seen less in states and more on individual level, people turning against national govt. and towards local govt.  either working above or sub-actors as much as or more than that state actor o Look at a few issues through this lens 1. Rwanda Genocide 1994 – one race killed .74 million of the other race in a matter of months, outsiders didn’t intervene to stop the violence and ended when opposition forces came in o See the centrality and importance of NGOs: before the genocide, many transnational organizations on the ground (Doctors without Borders) that provided most of the information the govt. had, also fed the people, etc.; UN peacekeeping troops enforcement of earlier peace agreement but also relied on NGOs for information o Without non-state actors we would known very little and much later that a genocide was imminent 2. Environment- global governance around environmental issues takes a major shift with 1992 Rio Earth Summit –NGOs played a huge role in this conference: set the original goals of negotiating an agreement to control greenhouse gases, proposed most of the Global Governance structure and content for the agreement states signs, lobbied governments to sign it, mobilize public pressure to force an agreement no one thought was possible, played huge role in experts on government delegations 3. AIDs –about 10 years ago- anti AID activists wanted the govt. to provide more AID treatment for the population hooked up with other activists and eventually, a coalition of groups that included local Sri Lankan NGOs, Human Rights Law Clinic, etc. pressured Sri Lankan govt. to change; went to the Word Bank so that development aid for Sri Lanka included money for AID treatment Non state actors going around govt. or over the heads of govt. to get things done; states do not look central and if anything, they look like obstacles to progress However, both ends of a spectrum are too stark of a view o Weak states crowd make a few mistakes: 1) Non state power does not substitute state power (nor national
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