PSYCH 2 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Nervous System, Memory, Visual Cortex

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Published on 12 Oct 2018
School
Berkeley
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2
Professor
PSYCH 2
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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PSYCH LECTURE #1
I. What is Psychology?
Scientific study of the mind, behavior and mental processes
To understand anything in the universe we need to think about the level of
analysis
Levels of Analysis Biological, Social and Cultural, Psychological
Biological = brain
Psychological = thoughts, feelings, behavior
social and cultural = connections to other people
II. Important People
A. Aristotle
Fourth century BCE
Theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotions, perception
and personality
He didn’t have our scientific knowledge, but he asked the right questions
B. Wilhelm Wundt
Establish the first psychology laboratory in a University in Germany
Tried to measure atoms of the mind
Added two key elements to enhance scientific nature of psychology
C. Edward Titchener and Structuralism
Relied on self report data
Encouraged introspection, reporting on sensations and other elements of
experience in reaction to stimuli
Used thee introspective reports to build a view of the mind’s structure:
sensations, emotions, and memories/mental images
This early school of thought was called structuralism
Thought we could come up with a structure to divide the human experience
in parts
D. William James and Functionalism
Studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Asked 1. What function might they serve? 2. How might they have helped
ancestors survive?
This functionalist school of thought was influenced by Charles Darwin
E. Mary Whiton Calkins
One of the first women in Psychology
Became memory researcher and first APA female president
Studied with James but was discriminated against
F. Behaviorism (Literal behavior)
Defined psych as scientific study of observable behavior without reference to
mental processes
Became major force in psych into 1960s
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John B Watson (classical conditioning) and BF Skinner (operant
conditioning) dismissed introspection
Waston and Rosalie Rayner conducted famous Little Albert experiments
BECAME MORE OF OBSERVATIONAL SCIENCE!
Does not incorporate mental processes, doesn’t tell us what is happening in
the mind
G. Freudian Psychology (mental processes)
Emphasized ways unconscious thought processes and emotional responses
to childhood experiences affect later behavior
H. Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic Psych revived interest in study of mental processes
Focused on ways current environments nurture or limit growth potential
and on importance of having need for love and acceptance satisfied
Led by Carl Rogers (unconditional positive regard) and Abraham Maslow
(hierarchy of needs, basic needs to self actualizations)
Rogers influenced many psychotherapy approaches
I. Carl Young
archetypes!
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Document Summary

Psychology"s subfields: basic research: builds psychology"s knowledge base, applied research: tackles practical problems. They may also play a role in inward to spinal cord and brain for processing. Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous. System (sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body). learning, thinking, and memory. The nervous system: gathers and transmits information, nerves: bundles axons forming neural cables connecting cns with muscles, glands, and sense organs. Older brain structures: less complex brain in primitive vertebrates regulates basic survival functions. If the brain is damaged early in life, the other may assume many functions by reorganizing or building new pathways: ability to change, especially during childhood, ability diminishes later in life formation of new neurons. Psych lecture #5: brain communication, neural firing, neurons communicate with each other electrochemically: chemicals cause an electrical signal, the electrical signal that travels down a neuron is called an action potential.

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