[RHETOR 10] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (22 pages long!)

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29 Mar 2017
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Berkeley
RHETOR 10
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Historical Context
Physical Structure of the World
Do the world and the universe have a center?
What is the shape of the world?
What lives in it and beyond it?
Structure of Beliefs
How varied are the answers?
How different were past answers?
Which past? Whose past?
Focus on the deficient of knowledge. What is it that we do not know?
Conventional Timeline
800 B.C.E. - 500 C.E. -- Ancient Period
500 C.E. - 1400s -- Middle Ages/Dark Ages/Medieval Ages
1300s- 1600s -- Renaissance
1600s - 1800s -- Enlightenment
The Early Modern period was toward the end of the Middle Ages and through most of the
Renaissance (~1500- 1800). The region that this period applies to is very small: N. Africa and
some parts of Europe.
The Latin-speaking Roman empire is in the north, and the Greek-speaking Byzantine empire is
in the south. The Byzantine empire long outlasts the Roman Empire, and it’s capital--
Constantine-- is known today as Istanbul. The literate nations of the East-- namely, the Arabs
and the Greeks-- creates a lot of dialogue that is preserved. The West gets this information much
later.
This course will look at authors that are confined to Western Europe, and later to the points
spreading outward with territories that they seize. Note that many of these thinkers are religious
thinkers. Although they believed science was the road to progress, they believed science would
lead us to a state like Eden (pure, innocent, clear, truthful) rather than further confusion.
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Figures of Greek Antiquity
Socrates (470- 399 B.C.E)
- Hero of Plato’s writings
- Condemned to death for impiety
(teacher of)
Plato (428- 349 B.C. E)
- Founder of the Academy in Athens
- Author of dialogues still studied today
(teacher of)
Aristotle (384- 322 B.C.E)
- Tutor of Alexander the Great
- Author of texts that formed the scaffold of medieval Islamic & Christian thought
Plato’s Theory of Forms
Look outside. There are several trees, they all look different. Why are they all trees? Plato posits
that people have an abstract conception of a Tree that bears a strong resemblance to all trees.
When we see a tree, we see the Tree inside the tree.
The Medieval Universe
Think: What does centrality mean?
We often rush to the notion that centrality is important.
Calcidius rejects anthropocentric cosmology. He believes that humanity’s location is a
convenience for greater beings-- e.g. the geocentric belief was not exactly that Earth was at the
center, but that Earth was at the bottom and the gods were above.
The Aristotelian model was divided into two basic parts: celestial and terrestrial.
Martianus Capella (A.D. 410- 439), North African, from Carthage, offers a hybrid of geocentric
and heliocentric models. He writes The Marriage of Philology and Mercury The seven liberal
arts are: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and musical theory.
Septum Artes Liberales refers to the Seven Liberal Arts.
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Document Summary

The early modern period was toward the end of the middle ages and through most of the. The region that this period applies to is very small: n. africa and some parts of europe. The latin-speaking roman empire is in the north, and the greek-speaking byzantine empire is in the south. The byzantine empire long outlasts the roman empire, and it"s capital-- The literate nations of the east-- namely, the arabs and the greeks-- creates a lot of dialogue that is preserved. This course will look at authors that are confined to western europe, and later to the points spreading outward with territories that they seize. Note that many of these thinkers are religious thinkers. Although they believed science was the road to progress, they believed science would lead us to a state like eden (pure, innocent, clear, truthful) rather than further confusion. Condemned to death for impiety (teacher of) Author of dialogues still studied today (teacher of)

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