[RHETOR 151] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 40 pages long Study Guide!

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RHETOR 151
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Rhetoric 151
Lecture 1 -- 1/19/2017
How to efface distance?
- Need data and intelligence - not only know but gather and collect and
understand it (accumulation)
- Foreknowledge
- Information
- Formation of data into coherent pieces
- Also forming people: education, productive citizens) for the neoliberal
society
Conquest (informatio: inquisition: inquest)
- Questio: control over people by questioning (torturing them)
- Quest: journey (ex. Holy grail, quest for love)
- Information is attached to conquering - knowledge is power of conquering
empires, territories and people
Extension of powers: centers (european countries) controlling peripheries
Immutable and Combination Management
- Ensuring return of not one, but many ships
- Success - information management
- Domestication and simplification
- Turn everything into numbers to put them on maps, tables and
instruments > “centers of calculation” (ex. IRS, museums)
- Centralization of data
The distant and abstract need to be
(1) Mobile - can be returned
(2) Stabilized - move without decay or corruption
(3) Combination - can be aggregated, shuffled and re-ordered
Methods of Long Distance Control (LDC)
- 2 kinds of navigation
- (1) Mediterranean - clear waters, difficult to get lost, rutter= landmarks,
portolan (maps) with wind roses on it, compass
- (2) North Atlantic - errors magnified (big ocean), dead reckoning
difficult/ impossible, tides and ocean floor poses problems (very
shallow), need lead and line (to see how deep water is)
2 barriers for unknown territory - Cape Bojada and the equator
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These barriers were physical and psychological - “sea of darkness”
European vessels were effective in a limited range/ within an envelope
- Single masted ship
Cape Bojada passed in 1434...
By Portuguese (1st to do so)
Summary: will + money + technique + spirituality + stability + geography > all
readons entangled allowed success
- Geographic reasons
- Social and political stability
- Nobles and elites wanted to prove themselves - quest as an outlet other
than wars
- Economic reasons: fight against Venetian and Muslim barriers to spice trades
- Shortage of land and food
- Independent of Mediterranean economy
- Capital from Genoa, Genoa joined forced with the Portuguese
Henry the Navigator - interested in gold, information, allies, luxury foods (silk and
spice), merchandise, converting people, profit, glory
- Periphery needs to respond immediately at behest of the center
- Degeneration of circuit is the enemy
- P first to establish global undistorted communication > overstatement?
- Ships = means to exercise LDC
- Need to build a navigational context!
- Carrack as perfect vehicle
- 2 castles - stable and immune to attacks
- Self sustaining - carry lots of food and water
- Square and lateen sails allow versatility - can task, no need for
wind to be directly behind you
- Celestial navigation
- Math and astronomy, reproducible
- Ptolemy: heavenly frames of reference
- Celestial sphere and imagined grid
- Longitudinal/ latitude
- Use sun and stars (north pole)
- Fixing position, estimate distance, observations collected (descriptions
were celestial and not terrestrial)
- Islamic and Jewish science
- No P tradition of math and astronomy
- Little power by clergy - religious tolerance
- Jews brought knowledge into P
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