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CAS AN 331
Jeremy Desilva

Hypths Speciation_ Bio Species Concept (Mayr) _ Evo Species Concept (Simpson) Primates_ (pred. wiping// habitat expnsion) 1.Arboreal hypth_ Filling the terminal branch niche 2. Visual Predation_ Terminal branch niche + hunting adaptations 3. Angiosperm Radiation_ Terminal branch niche + exploiting fruits & flowers Apes_ Model 1= Primitive Catarrhine Slctn for lrgr body  Slctn to maintain access to arboreal rsourcs = Proconsul & Morotopith (& lngr lives) (land) (trees) Model 2= Primitive Catarrhine Slctn for enhanced ability to exploit arboreal rsourcs  Slctn for lrgr body= Morotopith Miocene’s African gap- (Begun)=Apes from Europe (following food patches) (Pilbeam)=Apes always inAfrica (haven’t found YET) Bipedality 1. Darwin= Hunting stone tools hand specialization Bipedality  canine ↓ Savanah Hypth= Great Rift Valley ÷ early Panins, Gorillas from early hominins 2.Above-branch walking= small bodyAbove tree walk/hunt ground walking obligate bipedalism 3. Forest Remnant= Climate Δ forest ↓  walk between patchesobligate bipedality 4. Threat display= Canine ↓  weapons upright stance obligate bipedality 5. Kevin Hunt= Upright posture for low-lying fruit {(-_-) assumes chimp-like ancestor} 6.Thermo-regulation= upright posture= ↓ solar radiation exposure 7. Energy-efficiency= Upright walking for long distance travel {(-_-) tested on mdrn species} 8. Lovejoy= Provisioning & Monogamy=  babies required resources Free hands (Demographic Dilemma) = ↓ / = ↓ Canine = Concealed ovulation People ● Carl Sagen=  Cosmic Calendar ● Nicolas Steno= Principles of superposition ● Farish Jenkins= Tiktaalik ● Haldig= “Rabbit fossils in the Precambrian6” ● 1700s Linnaeus (taxonomist)= Nested hierarchies Cuvier (naturalist)= Extinction Hutton & Lyell (geologists)= Uniformitarianism (constant geo patterns of Δ) & Deep Time 1800s Lamarck (scholar)= 1 idea of mechanism of Δ (Inheritance of Acquired Traits) Malthus (scholar)= Population grwth rate > resource grwth rate)   1830s  D­Win=     1858   Wallace= Wallace’s line (Indonesia) 1859= Origin of Species ● S.J. Gould= Punctuated Equilibrium ● Ernst Mayr= Biological Species Concept ● Philip Gingerich= Vallestof the Whales ● Eugene Dubois= 1891_1  idea of transitional fossils = wallace’s line ● Diane Fossey= Gorilla knowledge & conservation ● Elwyn Simons= Oligocene Apes ■  Ramapithecus= hominid reconstruction (actually  Sivapithecus) ● Sarich & Wilson= GEN REV.  Nothing before 8mys can be hominid (canine NOT uniquely hom.) ● Pickford= Miocene in Kenya (Samburupit & Nakalipith) ~220 myr Mammals (Monotremes/ Marsupials/ Placental) 1.Hair 2. Mammary glands 3. Endotherms 4.4-chambered hearts 5. Placenta 6. Specialized teeth 7. Modified jawbones inner ear ~60-85myr (molecular phylogenetics)// ~65myr (fossil) Primates Strepsirrhine Synapomorphies: 1. Opposable Big Toe 2. Prehensile Hands 3. Nails 4. Hind­limb locomotion 5. Forward­facing eyes (w/ postorbital bar or septum) 6. Small litters 7. Long Gestation 8. Long Maturation 9. Large brains 10. Unique teeth 11. Tropical 1. Toilet claw 2. Tooth comb 3. Tapetum Haplorhines 1. No tapetum 2. Upper lips Anthropoids 1. Lrgr brains 2. Postorbital septum Catarrhine 1. 2­1­2­3 Dentition 2. Frontal­phenoid contact 3. Tympanic bony tube 4. Old World geo 5. Lrgr body Hominoid (APE) 1. Lrg Body & brn 2. Tail­less Hominoids (Apes): Gibbons (Hylobates) Monogomous Ripe fruit diet Territorial duets Lrg brn (NO self-recognition) Orangutans (Pongo) 2 species? Lrgst tree-dweller (Quadrumanous) Solitary Sexual DIMORPH! Gorilla (Gorilla) 3-4 species Lrgst primate Simple tool-use and dietary traditions Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Slender Geo-iso from chimpanzee (congo rvr) Aggrssn/ territory sex/G-G rubbing rare tool-use Reduced sexual Dimorph Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Meat sharing Canine Dimorph Tool-use Proto-culture Bromance with hierarchy 3. Orthograde 4. Arboreal fruit­eater 5. Below branch forelimb suspension:  (Shoulder mobility, Full elbow extension, Wrist adduction, LONG arms) 6. Extended Life History (K-reproductive strategy) 7. SE Asia rnfrsts & sub­Saharan Africa African MioceneApes vs. Hominin: 1. Bipedalism FM//Lumbar Lordosis// stout Pelvis// Valgus k(10 ) & Varus ankle/ Stiff,Arched foot/Adducted hallux 2. Enormous brains ~1300cc vs. 380 3. Speech st 4. Sophisticated Tools  1 cutmarks= 2.5mya 5. Small Canines_  sex dimorph _ No C/P3honing cmplx 6. Pair-Bond Tendency 7. Little Body Hair 8. Shorter IBIs 9. Long Life Histories - Long Post-reproductive lives -  viaAssistance& Food Victoriapithecus (OWM) 15 myr Uganda, Kenya Proconsul (5 species) 22-17myr Stable elbow Kenya, Uganda Limited supination/ pronation (Napak) Limited wrist adduction No tail? Monky-like limb ratio (intermembral index) Pronograde (6 elongated lumbar)
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