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THE ULTIMATE HI290_IR350 FINAL REVIEW.pdf
THE ULTIMATE HI290_IR350 FINAL REVIEW.pdf

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School
Boston University
Department
History
Course
CAS HI 334
Professor
All
Semester
Fall

Description
THE ULTIMATE HI290/IR 350 FINAL REVIEW Years of Crisis: 1958-1962 1. The Crisis Years of the Early Sixties 1955 US/USSR: • “Open Skies”: President Eisenhower’s proposal at the Geneva Conference of 1955 to control nuclear weapons, the purpose was to increase trust by having both sides know what the other side was up to – some historians predict that Open Skies was predicted to get rejected before even proposing • The Soviet Union refused to agree to the open skies, seeing it as a violation 1960 US/USSR: • U2 was to fly at such a high altitude over the USSR to take photographs of weapon sites – the Soviet Union was aware of the plane but did not want to publicize • Khrushchev denounces it and Eisenhower denied the allegations but the pilot of the plane was captured and the U2 survived intact enough that evidence showed that it was a spy plane – this was embarrassing for the US • Khrushchev demands a formal apology, punishment of those responsible and a pledge for it to never ever happen again – Eisenhower refuses • These tensions between the US and the Soviet Union led to the collapse of the Paris Summit that had already been arranged United States: • The 1960 elections of Kennedy vs. Nixon: the first televised debate on September 26, 1960 • Kennedy is young and fresh while Nixon appears uncomfortable on the television screen Asia: • “Sino-Soviet Split”: Split between Khrushchev and Mao because Mao is nothing more than a puppet of the Soviet Union and an extension of communism into Asia • Mao believed that the Soviets had violated the principles of Marxist-Leninism when Khrushchev began to spread a peacemaking posture – marked the end of the peaceful coexistence 1961 United States: • Eisenhower is stigmatized as “falling behind” of the Soviet Union • But JFK becomes president in January 20, 1961 and is viewed as a “Cold Warrior”, ready to be involved in international affairs US/USSR: • Khrushchev and Kennedy meet in Vienna on June 3-4 – is a showdown between the two superpowers • Khrushchev wanted to settle the Berlin Crisis once and for all in Moscow’s terms • After returning from Vienna in June 1961, Khrushchev announced an increase on military spending which causes Kennedy to commit to defend West Berlin Europe: • Berlin between the East and the West – between 4 occupation zones and two sides – the citizens are generally free to circulate amongst the entire city • “Brain Dead” problem: Many of the citizens began to escape into the west and leave the country • August 13, 1961: Barbed wires are strung around East Germany • Created the most famous wall in Europe, the Berlin Wall, prevented travel between East and West Germany except through a few checkpoint areas • John F. Kennedy’s Message was printed in LIFE Magazine September 15, 1961 • Kennedy becomes criticized in West Berlin for not having tearing down the wall – Kennedy gives a speech in Berlin that wins the people back through displaying an emotional connection 2. The Cuban Missile Crisis United States/Latin America: 1959 • Cuban-American relations deteriorate after the autocratic Fulgencio Batista regime falls after the Cuban Revolution run under Fidel Castro • Castro took a number of steps to remove all American economic influence – against “Yankee imperialism” 1960 • Castro expropriates the American sugar firms in Cuba and nationalized all the banks and large industrial enterprises – many of which were American owned • Soviets took advantage of the breaking relationship between America and Cuba and agreed to purchase one-fifth of Cuba’s sugar production – by the end of the year Cuba was receiving arms from the USSR 1961 • America attempts to overthrow Castro and creates invasion plans • Brigade 2506: a group of Cuban exiles sponsored by the CIA formed to militarily overthrow Castro – become a symbol of a free Cuba mission • Carry out the Bay of Pigs Invasion on April 17 which was planned during the Eisenhower administration under the CIA by the Brigade • President Kennedy does not know much about the plan beside what Ike had told him but is assured that it would be a simple operation likely to succeed and will be able to rid the hemisphere of his threats • Mission was to land on the Bay of Pigs, win the Cuban people over, have them rise up and overthrow Castro as their leader • The attack fails within three days – 1,300 Cuban troops were awaiting their invasions and the entire American force was killed or captured by Castro’s military force • November 1961 John F. Kennedy authorizes “Operation Mongoose” – a scheme to overthrow Castro • There were several attempts to assassinate Castro 1962 • Castro seeks help from the USSR in April of 1962 after the invasion • The Soviet Union was falling behind in the arms race – The Soviet ICBM missile force was much smaller than that of the U.S. • Kremlin accepts the request of conventional weapons to defend the island • Wants to place medium- and intermediate-range missiles in Cuba to double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union or Cuba • If the American’s know that the Soviets have a missile in Cuba, they will not invade • July, in secret, the USSR begins to ship nuclear weapons to Cuba – they begin constructing a missile site which America becomes suspicious of • October, a U2 Plane flies over Cuba to take pictures and sends photos back to hq to reveal their plot and discover the missile site • President Kennedy immediately organizes the Executive Committee of the National Security Council to handle the crisis which leads to seven days of top secret and intensive debate • President Kennedy meets with Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, Gromyko, and exchange concerns asking about the missiles – Gromyko says they are just defense weapons, Kennedy does not believe him • Options: Airstrike – go in an take out the missile site but can lead to direct confrontation – attacking without warning would be like Pearl Harbor • October 16, decide on a blockade around Cuba to prevent and other ships – “Quarantine” refusing an invasion or an attack • October 22, Kennedy addresses the nation about the Missile Crisis • Secretary of State Dean Rusk confronts Soviet Ambassador with the information of secret missiles, US is ready to go to war – Khrushchev responds that he will not back down • For the first time, the U.S. Strategic Air Command moves to Defense Condition (DEFCON) 2. The next step, DEFCON 1, will mean war • October 26 the showdown begins • US Navy ships enforce a quarantine • The Face Saving Deal 1. “The Public Deal”: Remove the missile from Cuba, dismantle and stop construction. US promises never to invade Cuba 2. “The Top Secret Deal”: The United States will remove the Jupiter missiles from Turkey after a decent interval • “Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first…” – Dean Rusk, Secretary of State • Castro is enraged at the result but war is averted • Consequences of the Crisis: o Hot Line Agreement (1963): Better form of communication between Kremlin and White House, a one-on-one communication o Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963): All nuclear testing are to be underground and bans testing in the atmosphere o Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) (1968,1970): Prevents other countries from being nuclear o Cuba Secure from U.S. invasion • What happens to the main leaders of the crisis: Kennedy Assassinated (1963), Khrushchev overthrown (1964), Castro Lives and Keeps his Job Detente between the Two Europes and the Two Superpowers 1. Challenges to the Bipolar World in the 1960s 1958 Europe: • Charles de Gaulle returns to the political scene after disappearing in 1946 • Governments are in exile, Charles de Gaulle asks for a French government in exile • Declares himself during the dark days of Germany occupation Charles de Gaulle sets up a French government himself – later resigns because he wanted a strong executive in charge to run the county but the nation wants the old parliamentary structure • De Gaulle looks to cut France loose from Algeria and other possessions in Africa • Algeria is going to become the most important oversees colony France has – in 1954 the Muslim population of Algeria revolted against French rule • Rebellion keeps spreading throughout the country, France is starting to see that it is just too much man power and costly to keep fighting the rebellion • The Army Revolts: Paris began to consider negotiations with the Algerian FLN movement, the French settlers living in the coastal cities were outraged with the commanders of the French military forces in Algeria overthrew the civilians in Algeria • Charles de Gaulle was summoned from retirement to assume control of the French state in order to solve the “Algerian Problem” • De Gaulle emerges as a strong leader: New Constitution, increased executive powers, assertiveness in foreign policy • The Force de Frappe: France Demands Equal Power in NATO • De Gaulle concentrates on what is really important to him, France’s position in Europe – wants to challenge America’s position in NATO • Wants a French-led Europe into a political, economic, and strategic bloc independent of both the United States and the Soviet Union and capable of acting as a third force in world affairs • Sends a memo to President Eisenhower and to the Prime Minister in Britain – Sees an “Anglo- Saxon conspiracy” when the US and GB refuse to share powers in NATO 1960 Europe: • De Gaulle decides to go off on his own and to be taken seriously as a power joins the “nuclear club” • “Force de Frappe”: delivery systems of nuclear weapons • Charles De Gaulle visits Algeria and many of the French colonist in Algeria felt betrayed • Rather than leading France to victory in Algeria, Charles De Gaulle opened secret negotiations with the and eventually granted Algeria it’s independence • Independence for the African Colonies 1963 Europe: • France humiliates an old ally, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in Paris January 1963 • And instead embraces and old enemy, West Germany – De Gaulle and Konrad the Chancellor of West Germany sign the “Elysee Treaty” – declares a very close relationships between the two • De Gaulle tries to keep the British out and create a Franco-German relationship, serving as nucleus as Europe as a whole – they develop new capabilities together • France and Germany especially develop through economic ties becoming each other’s most important trading partners by the end of the decade – “Paris-Bonn” Axis • The goal is the liberate the power of the two superpowers 1964 Asia: • China joins the nuclear club in 1964 1965 East Europe: • Polycentric trend spreads to Romania • Richard Nixon and Nicolae Ceasusescu meet becomes an independent communist in case of foreign policy • No longer can Warsaw Pact use forces on Romania 1966 Europe: • France threatens the Atlantic alliance • French units withdrawn from NATO, NATO troops forced to leave France, NATO headquarters evicted from Paris 1968 East Europe/USSR: • Case of Czecholslovakia, the last country in Eastern Europe to fall behind the Iron Curtain • Dubcek’s “Communism with a Human Face” • Prague Spring 1968, relaxed censorship – begins to have a western style as a politician • Pursues an independent foreign policy and promised a gradual democratization of Czech political life with books, newspapers, and music have developed a new culture in Prague • Change in Prague didn’t start from the bottom up with Students as it did in Berkeley or Paris but at the very top with the communist party • The USSR became increasingly alarmed at Dubcek’s policies and in August 1968 Soviet and other Warsaw Pact armies invaded Czechoslovakia ending Prague Spring • Dubcek was arrested along with other reformist leaders, taken to Moscow and forced to agree to the cancellation of his government and economic reforms • Prague Spring 1968 – Each communist party is responsible not only to its own people, but also to the socialist countries to the entire communist movement • In the end there is still one center of power – Moscow – if a country goes too far to assert its independence, the Doctrine will move in and stop • The “Paris Spring” – May 1968 Europe: • De Gaulle’s dream of ending the Cold War in Europe and liberating from the two superpower system never comes to be 1969 Europe: • De Gaulle is no longer in power 2. Ostpolitik and Detente in the Seventies 1955 Europe/East Europe: • “The Hallstein Doctrine” – asserts the right to represent the entire German “nation” – it broke diplomatic relations with states that recognized the German Democratic Republic • West Germany wanted nothing to do with all the countries that recognize East Germany, including all countries of the Warsaw Pact 1966 Europe: • West Germany Looks East: The Search for Peace and Stability in Europe German Socialist leader, Willy Brandt becomes foreign minister in a coalition government granted by the Christian Democratic Party • Brandt set out to improve the terrible relations that existed between West Germany and the communist countries of Eastern Europe and had the goal of reducing Cold War Tensions • First problem to improve has to do with the whole states of the East German State • Ostpolitik or Brandt’s new “eastern policy” which showed a shift in attitude of West German in other Germany and its communist allies 1967 Europe/East Europe: • The “Hallstein Doctrine” Abandoned – Brandt repudiated the Hallstein Doctrine. He sent ambassadors to Romania and Yugoslavia, and established trade relations with several Communist countries in Eastern Europe, despite the fact that they continued to recognize East Germany 1969 US/USSR: • Richard Nixon is inaugurated into office in January and is proposed by the Soviet Union to create negotiations for the mutual limitation and reduction of nuclear delivery vehicles and defensive systems • Nixon looks to come to an agreement to limit the nuclear arms race and Moscow’s help in arranging an “honorable exit” from Vietnam • The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT): November 1969 to May 1972 • The first arms limitation agreement of the Cold War: Limits on ICBMs, SLBMs, Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) systems to 100 launchers at two sites each • Anti-Ballistic Missile systems: Defensive system of missile that will intercept incoming missiles Europe: • Willy Brandt wins the parliamentary elections in 1969 and becomes the first socialist chancellor • Steps up his campaign to improve with communist bloc • The Oder-Neisse Line (1949-1970): Poland had annexed a large part of eastern Germany and expelled most of the German people who lived there – West Germany consequently refused to recognized the new border between Poland and Germany 1970 Europe: • Brandt paid a visit to Warsaw and visited the site of the former Jewish Ghetto to pay his respects • Recognized the Oder-Neisse line as the permanent legal border between Poland and Germany • West German Chancellor Willy Brandt meets with East German Prime Minister Willy Stoph in East Germany Europe/USSR: • Brandt visits Moscow and meets with the leaders of the Soviet Union • Brandt signs a non-aggression pact August 12 with the Soviet Union, last time in 1939 Germany had went against it during World War II 1971 • December, Brandt Awarded Nobel Peace Prize 1972 Europe: • “The Basic Treaty” (December 1972): agree to pursue “good neighborly relations” to forego the use of force, to respect each other’s sovereignty • One goal was the introduction of “border traffic regulations” • “Two States and One Nation” • The two German states are both invited to join the UN 1974 United States: • Nixon Ousted, Ford Takes the Oath: Nixon resigned and his vice president takes office • Ford resumes arms control talks – Vladivostok, November 23, 1974 • Announced the formula for an agreement for a second treaty to limit strategic offensive arms (SALT II): Limits placed on strategic nuclear delivery vehicles not covered by SALT I (especially long-range bombers) and on multiple independently-targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) each side would be permitted to deploy 1975 Europe: • Helsinki Conference (August): EVERYONE IS THERE IT’S POPPIN, write the Helsinki Final Act • Includes 3 “Baskets”: 1. European borders declared inviolable codifying post-WWII European borders est. in 1945 2. Promised cooperation in trade and cultural exchange 3. Guaranteed respect for fundamental human rights and established a monitoring mechanism US/USSR: • Soviet – US rivalry builds up in Africa (1975-1979) 1977 US/USSR: • Jimmy Carter assumes the presidency and pledges to continue to seeks better relations with the Soviet Union • Soviet Intermediate-Range Missiles in Europe (1977-79) 1979 United States: • Carter kept alive the spirit of détente by signing of the SALT II treaty with Brezhnev in Vienna on June 18 Soviet Union: • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979) 1980 US/USSR: • “Moscow Nyet”: Denounces the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan President Carter informed group of American athletes that the US would to send a team to the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow • Banned all exports to the Soviet Union and urged other nations to join a U.S.-led boycott • Kremlin was enraged and humiliated The Far East, 1960-1990 1. The Second War for Indochina, 1954-1975 1954 • At the Geneva Conference, there was an agreement that France would withdraw from th Indochina and the country of Vietnam was temporarily partitioned divided at the 17 parallel • In North Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh appeals to the two communist power, Moscow & Beijing, and support him through advisors, economic aid and military aid • The Deepening American Political Involvement under Eisenhower, the US Backs Diem’s Regime (1954-1960) • As the aid is being supplied, the United States gives it’s support to the government in Saigon, South Vietnam, to Ngo Dienh Diem 1956 • Diem cancels elections for reunification • When it became clear that Ho Chi Minh would win the planned elections in 1956, Diem, with U.S. backing, refused to allow a vote • Tensions mounted, and Ho Chi Minh urged Vietminh fighters and sympathizers in the south to rise up against the government • Second half of the 1950s we see the beginning of assurgency in South Vietnam – mounted by the people who are unhappy with the government 1960 • Regime in Saigon is autocratic but opposed to communist • The armed rebellion in the South against the Diem regime was dominated by Communist sympathizers of North Vietnam • Diem’s autocratic regime also alienated non-Communist groups in the south, which joined the Communists to form the National Liberation Front (N.L.F.) • Diem referred to the contemptuously as the “Viet Cong” (Vietnamese Communist) 1961 • Kennedy is saying that the French are losing and we don’t want to get sucked into this war • The French had appealed to the Americans to a full scale intervention to relieve them and Kennedy speaks out very strongly against it and so is LBJ • Kennedy increases the amount of aid sent to Saigon as the war expands but was unwilling to start sending troops – US Air Force pilots were involved but a policy that a Vietnamese airman must go along so the US could pretend that the missions were being carried through the Vietnamese 1963 • Religion, politics and war heats up in the spring – majority of the country is Buddhist but the elite are Catholics • Forbid Buddhist from displaying their flag and the Buddhist are outraged • Unrest spreads – The Buddhist refused to obey the ban in protest and government forces open fire, killing nine people – tensions build up and Buddhist attract world attention through committing suicide • BBQ Speech by Madame Nhu • Lodge reads Diem the Riot Act – demanded that South Vietnamese Government take steps to reverse the deteriorating political government • The end of Diem regime (November 1, 1963) – Diem was assassinated • Diem’s death did little to solve the crisis in South Vietnam and within a year the Vietcong had established effective control of most of the countryside outside the large cities • Kennedy Send the “Green Berets”: their mission was to destroy the Vietcong while engaging in “nation-building” or “winning the hearts and minds” of the South Vietnamese peasants • Strong sense of patriotism in the stage • Kennedy’s new envoy arrives – Henry Cabot Lodge, accepted the post of US Ambassador to South Vietnam – Kennedy takes Lodge aside and tells him that it is his duty to reach out • Johnson is sworn into office in November after Kennedy’s assassination 1964 • Johnson must deiced what he must do next in Vietnam after assuming the presidency after the death of Kennedy • Johnson has many doubts about sending troops into Vietnam • The Gulf of Tonkin (August) - two US destroyers may or may not have been attacked by Vietnamese PT boats • “Tokin Gulf Resolution”: a request from congress to get a blank check to do what the president has to do in Vietnam – passes the House of Representative without a single opposing vote and sails through the Senate – do whatever you need to do 1965 • Airstrikes are mounted and attack North Vietnamese • Operation “Rolling Thunder” planned in February • North Vietnam begins sending more troops south • More US Troops arrive and ground troops are sent for the first time – America is engaged in overseas warfare and Johnson is committed to winning the war • Cambodia Drawn Into the Conflict: Remained neutral during the war in neighboring Vietnam but its chief of State, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, broke off relations with the US in 1965 and allowed North Vietnamese troops to set up bases in Cambodia in support of their campaign against the US-backed government in South Vietnam • Opposition to the war begins – criticism of the “selective service” draft system increased – draft rules were unfair and local draft boards did not have equal standards and some privileged young men got to join the reserve of the national guard • The President and the war under fire at home 1968 • The Tet Cease-fire (January 29 to January 31 ): three day ceasefire was called early in the year • The Tet Attack: Over 80,000 Vietnamese regulars and Vietcong guerrillas mounted a surprise offensive against most of the provincial capitals and many cities and town in South Vietnam • No uprising in South Vietnam, Vietcong and North Vietnamese soldiers expelled from all towns in South Vietnam • Public Relations Triumph – news flash to the Americans that this war is going to drag on and on and on • LBJ drops out, announced that he would not seek re-election, a halt of bombing of North Vietnam, proposes the opening of peace negotiations with Hanoi’s representatives in Paris to end the war 1969 • Nixon takes office – 540,000 soldiers in Vietnam when he takes office • Nixon and Henry Kissinger know they cannot win this war – they try to find a way to leave while holding his head high • Strategy called “Vietnamization:” Turning more combat responsibility to the South Vietnamese army 2. China Turns to the West 1950s -1960s • The Sino-Soviet Alliance – Mao is undertaking a major restructuring of Chinese society • Resembled the “purges” Stalin undertook to make sure that the communist party has absolute total control – got rid of capitalists, college professors, etc. • Also undertaking economic development – Mao adopts Stalin’s 5 Year Plan (1953-1957) • They needed more food for their huge population • China will never become a great power unless it progresses economically – needs to produce goods to satisfy the huge population • They only have the Russians to help them out • Close economic relationship develops between them – USSR is providing them with military supplies, technology, and foreign investment, China is really subservient to USSR • Demobilized soldiers are assembled to provide the labor for the reconstruction of the country nd • 2 half of the 1950s Mao decides that maybe it’s time to put an end to this ruthless crackdown on dissent and to let people express themselves 100 flowers campaign • At first people approached it cautiously but then they got into it and complained about government policy • But then the government attacked its critics as “bourgeois rightists” and again cracked down on dissent – that’s enough of that • There were little twists and turns of communist party policy during this period • Mao gets another idea – crash program on industry The “Great Leap Forward” (1958-1960) • Proved to be a costly failure – resulting in shortages of food and raw materials, overproduction of poor-quality goods, exhaustion of peasantry, massive famine • Mao realizes the mistake and ends it, but by that time you are already beginning to see growing tensions between China and Soviets • Tensions Between Allies • Both of them are united to Marxism-Leninism • But we see cracks in the relationship • Causes of the Sino-Soviet Split 1. Ideological Disagreements o Mao returns to “true communism”: Mao condemned the policy of peaceful coexistence with the capitalist world, Mao says he’s truer to communism than Khrushchev, Lenin nor Stalin would never have approved of Khrushchev’s policy o Khrushchev flew to the US huge betrayal of communism o Ironically, it’s the junior member (china) accusing the senior member (USSR) of having abandoned the whole policy of Communism 2. China’s Nuclear Ambitions (1951-1959) o China and USSR had signed agreement that said China would provide the uranium if the Soviets helped them develop nukes (1957) o Khrushchev initially agrees to provide technical assistance and supply a sample atomic bomb to China but in 1959, Khrushchev abruptly took back his pledge o USSR are already a little anxious about their Chinese ally – they don’t trust them to follow Moscow’s line o Mao states he’ll develop a nuclear weapon with or without Soviet’s help o China explodes its first atomic bomb on October 16, 1964 and launched its first nuclear missile on October 25, 1966 and its first hydrogen bomb on June 14, 1967 3. China’s Rivalry with India o USSR had developed a close partnership with India – Chinese didn’t like that Soviets sent more aid to India than to Beijing o China regards India as an enemy because they had border conflicts in the Himalayas o The Soviet Union stays neutral in the dispute but continues to send military aid to India as they are pulling back from the Chinese o Sino-Indian war – results in casualties on both sides 4. China’s border disputes with Russia (1969) • When Khrushchev demanded submarine bases in 1960, Albania broke off diplomatic relations and aligned with China – the only communist state to do so – Sino-Soviet tensions were made public • Cultural “Revolution”: Internal Turmoil (1966-1976) • The government trying to crackdown in China on people who are sympathetic to the Soviet Union • Personality cult – Mao makes direct populus appeal to the people to help Mao clean out all of the obstacles to his program • Intellectuals sent into “re-education camps” • Ultimately directed at the Soviet Union • China adopts the mantle of being the champion of the Non-Western, non-white world racial argument • Chinese are going to support national liberation 1969 • China’s border disputes with Russia • US relaxes some trade and travel restrictions to China 1970 • Secret Sino-American talks in Warsaw resume after 2 years 1971 • April 1971: China invites a US table tennis team playing in Japan to visit China – Beginning of US and China’s “Ping-Pong” Diplomacy • June 1971: Nixon revokes trade embargo on China • July 1971: Nixon announces he will travel to China at Mao’s invitation • October 1971: US allows People’s Republic to replace Taiwan in UN • The Development of the Sino-American Entente (1971-1976) • Washington and Beijing share hostility in common towards the Soviet Regime – the enemy of my enemy is my friend • Mao is very worried that the Soviets are making plans to interfere in his policies and he’s worried about Soviet military strength – his nukes are nothing compared to the Russians’ • Brezhnev emits hints and signals that maybe indicate the willingness to consider nuclear war against china – he indirectly proposed to Kissinger and Nixon that maybe it would be a good idea to launch a pre-emptive strike on the Chinese nuclear facilities to eliminate their threat – Nixon says um no • Mao is sending a signal that he wants to warm up their relations 1972 • February: Nixon goes to China • Mao is really old and is pretty far gone • Nixon began is career as the spearhead of condemning Red China • Zhou Enlai is now pretty much in power • Taiwan’s reaction – not happy about this turn of events and the US abandoning them • The Shanghai Communiqué (February 27): Two sides pledged – o To seek the normalization of relations between China and the US, including economic and cultural contacts o To reduce danger of military conflict o To refrain from seeking “hegemony” in the Asia-Pacific region and to oppose efforts by any other country to establish such “hegemony” – a blast at USSR o The US affirmed that Taiwan was a part of China, not an independent state, and that the PRC was the sovereign power of China o The US promised to reduce military installations in Taiwan but insisted the dispute between the two Chinas be settled peacefully – you may not invade Taiwan, but if you do so we will defend Taiwan 1976 • Zhou Enlai dies in a “plane crash” and Mao Zedong dies naturally 1978 • The Deng Xiaoping Era • Deng Tries to really improve on this friendly relationship between the US and China • Deng visits the US during the Carter administration • Vietnam joins Soviet economic organization Comecon and signs treaty of friendship with USSR and allows them to establish air & naval bases • Conflicts arise between two former allies and China cuts off all aid to Vietnam • Vietnam seizes property of ethnic Chinese citizens, relocates them • In the Soviet-Sino split, Vietnam takes the side of USSR wholeheartedly • In December, Vietnam Invades Cambodia, the Soviet Union supports Vietnam as they go in and overthrow the Khmer Rouge regime and set up a Vietnamese client state while China backs the Khmer Rouge government in exile, so does the US – Even though they are actually a really terrible regime • The war has nothing to do with ideology, since they are all communists – It has to do with national rivalries • China feels sandwiched between USSR and aggressive Vietnam 1979 • In January, China and US Establish formal diplomatic relations • The U.S. and China established full diplomatic relations • The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Taiwan, though Washington continued to insist that the conflict between Beijing and Taipei be settled peacefully • Deng defeats the old Maoists and Institutes Economic growth and population control • One child law • Opens up the country to foreign economic relations – removing all of the communist restrictions on free market capitalism – now you can set up a private business in China and directly invest in China • Special economic zones are set up on the coast that are open to foreign trade and investment • China enters into the economic market and Chinese citizens are able to buy foreign goods • February 17, China Invades Vietnam but withdraw after about a month, however Vietnam remained in control of Cambodia • This all complicates the whole Domino theory very seriously • China isn’t a puppet of Moscow and Vietnam certainly isn’t a puppet of China anymore – all the communists are fighting each other which is weird 1980s • Capitalism without Democracy Chinese students flock to US and European universities – Western customs and ideas penetrate China (Particularly political ideas) American and European tourists flock to China and American and European firms set up subsidiaries in China • Tiananmen Square – pro-democracy demonstrators gather in 1989 demanding political reform • The send the military in and crush the rebellion • The decision is made: capitalism yes, democracy no, so communism retains its monopoly on the political scene • World Reaction: Trade and Other Sanctions • There was initial criticism but then it was business of usual • President George H.W. Bush realizes that relations between the US and China are very important and he doesn’t want human rights to interfere with that so the relations go back to normal • It’s not the beginning of a major transformation of relations 3. Japan and the Newly Industrializing Countries of East As
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