Exam 3 Study Guide.pdf

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

Exam 3 Study Guide Friday, November 16, 2012 9:41 AM Motivation and Emotion Motivation: Process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior Drive Theories Motivate our behavior to ultimately alter some internal process/state (homeostasis) Ie. Body temperature Regulating it by sweating, turn down furnace, remove sweater, blood vessels in skin dilate to remove heat, keep temperature within some range Incentive Theories Motivation by regular stimuli/motivated by external goals and rewards • High-incentive goal: need --> drive --> response (A in a class) • Low-incentive goal: need --> drive --> response Incentives are what pull the organism toward that goal Evolutionary Theories Motives are the product of natural selection - we are motivated to do certain things because of their adaptive value Motives Extrinsic Motivation - performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment Ie. Studying for a good grade Intrinsic Motivation - performing an activity for its own sake Ie. Studying because you enjoy it, want to learn Biological Motives • Hunger, thirst, sex, activity, temperature, aggression, sleep, excretion Social Motives • Achievement, affiliation (form social bonds), dominance (influence/control others), nurturance, autonomy (independence), exhibition (impress people), order (organization), play (relaxation/amusement) Humanistic Views • Striving for personal growth ○ Maslow's pyramid of personal growth: we continue to build on ourselves ○ ○ ○ Growth needs: self-actualization Deficiency needs: the ones below in the chart • Self-determination theory - Focus on psychological needs: ○ Competence ○ Autonomy - achieve person freedom/control ○ Relatedness - forming meaningful bonds with others Biological Motivations: HUNGER • Major player: hypothamalus lateral hypothalamus is the hunger center ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus is associated with satiation • Leptin is a central hormone in hunger ○ Produced by fat cells, released in the blood stream ○ As leptin increases, hunger decreases ○ Ob mice have no leptin so they fatties! • Biological factors ○ Hypothalamus ○ Blood glucose (as sugar goes down, hunger increases) ○ Insulin (secreted by pancreas, insulin increases then hunger increases) ○ Leptin (as leptin increases, hunger decreases) • Environmental factors ○ Presence of others (enjoy company, maybe eat more) ○ Food cues (smells, appearances) ○ Observational learning, culture (family dinner, communal dinner) ○ Stressful events (good/bad stress and how that impacts how/what we eat) ○ Learned preferences (fried grasshoppers are gross to us) • Dieting ○ Societal pressures ○ Body image -- may evolve into eating disorder Do we overindulge because we can? Very possibly ○ Do we overindulge because we can? Very possibly Emotions Emotions - Feeling (affect) states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to events • Cognitive component: Subjective appraisals/feelings that have an evaluative aspect • Physiological Component: autonomic arousal (fight or flight response; sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system), (limbic system) amygdala • Behavioral Component: body language, facial expressions ○ Primary emotions: biologically based/innate, culturally universal (but these cultures are very specific in how and when to express emotions)  Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, contempt, anger, and disgust ○ Secondary emotions: combination of primary emotions  Alarm = fear + surprise  Hatred = anger + disgust • Emotions as social communications - provide clues about our internal states and intentions, influence how others behave toward us • Common Features of Emotions eliciting stimuli --> cognitive appraisal --> physiological responses Expressive behaviors Instrumental behaviors Positive Psychology • Emphasizes/addresses questions related to: ○ Happiness ○ Life satisfaction/well-being(very quantifiable) ○ Human potential ○ Resilience ○ Coping ○ Love • Myths about what makes people happy ○ Myth: prime determinant of happiness is what happens to us  More about sleep, more positive events do not necessitate happier people ○ Myth: money makes us happy ○ Myth: happiness declines in old age ○ Myth: people on West Coast are the happiest ○ Intelligence, attractiveness, and parenthood • What makes people happy? ○ Marriage ○ College ○ Religion ○ Political affiliation ○ Exercise ○ Downward comparisons ○ Self-esteem (correlated with happiness (+), loneliness (-), aggression (+ & -), and narcissism (+))  Initiative, persistence, resilience (+)  Positive illusions (+) - tendency to perceive ourselves more favorably that others do ○ Genetics and personality: some people seem destined to be happy and some destined by unhappiness even if lives seem reasonably pleasant ○ Affective forecasting - our general tendency to predict our own and other's happiness to the degree where we overestimate long-term impact of events or moods ○ Durability bias - we believe that our good and bad moods will last longer than they actually do Human Development Human Development The average life expectancy is 78.7 years (differs by gender) Smoking is the #1 preventable health practice to improve your longevity Development: a pattern of change, begins at conception, continues through life cycle Our context and environment matters Longitudinal design: same people studied over a period of time;, more sensitive to developmentalchanges Cross-sectional design: people of varying ages studied simultaneously Inter-individual changes in intra-individual divisions Developmental Processes Biological processes Brain, puberty Cognitive processes How we mature intellectually, language, thought, emotional Socioemotional processes Interpersonal relationships Periods of Development Prenatal - conception to birth • Premature child is <36 weeks • Around 6 months gestation, the fetus is viable • Germinal Period ○ First 2 weeks post-conception ○ Attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall, placenta forms ○ Implantation ~ 10-14 days after conception --> embryo • Embryonic Period ○ 2-8 weeks post-conception ○ Rate of cell differentiation intensifies (organs begin to appear: organogenesis) ○ Zygote now embryo • Fetal Period ○ Begins 2 months after conception and lasts, on average, 7 months ○ Fetus is protected in amniotic sack Lungs are the least mature system/organ at birth Infancy - birth to 18-24 months • Extreme dependency on caregiver Early childhood - 18-24 months to 5-6 years • "Preschool years" • Human developmentis fostering school-readiness skills Middle/late childhood - 6 years to 11 years • "elementary school years" • Basic fundamental skills are learned Adolescence • Sexual maturation • Defined by one's independence/autonomy, identity formation Early adulthood • Economic independence Middle adulthood • Stable life, time to give back • Getting more involved in the society and the world - expanding your personal and social role Late adulthood Late adulthood • Declining health • Life review Social Age Chronological Age Biological Age Psychological Age Teratogen - any external agent that causes a birth defect (drugs or viruses, malnutrition) Early teratogenic event -- affects structures developing organs Late teratogenic event -- affects function of organs • Dose ○ The greater the dose, the greater the effect • Time of exposure ○ Teratogens do more damage when they occur at some points in development rather than others • Genetic susceptibility ○ Based upon genotype of pregnant mother and genotype of the fetus Infertility - the inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse Apgar Score 0 Points 1 point 2 points Points Totaled Activity (muscle tone) Absent Arms and legs flexed Active movement Pulse Absent Below 100 bpm Over 100 bpm Grimace (reflex Flaccid Some flexion of Active motion (sneeze, cough, pull irritability) extremities away) Appearance (skin color) Blue, pale Body pink, extremities Completely pink blue Severely depressed 0-3 Respiration Absent Slow, irregular Vigorous Moderately depressed 4-6 Women go through a post-event "blues" Excellent condition 7-10 Be conscious of post-event depression/anxiety (10-15% of women) Motor Development Cephalocaudal Trend -- develop from head --> foot • Take care of the core and the brain first Proximodistal Trend -- develop in --> out Maturation --Development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint Infants physical development in the first two years of life is extensive • In 12 months, infants capable of : ○ Sitting ○ Standing ○ Walking • 90% of infants by 7.8 months can sit without support • 70% by 14 months can stand without support • 90% by 14.3 months can walk Infant Mortality Infant Mortality Causes of infant death in US for 2010 1. Chromosomalabnormalities/congenitalmalformations 2. Short gestation and low birth weight 3. SIDS 4. Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy 5. Accidents (unintentional injuries) 6. Newborn affected by complications of placenta, ... Food and Nutrition Early childhood: 1800 calories/day Mid-Late childhood: 2400 calories/day First year of life, most medical professionals suggest that a mother feed on demand You cannot spoil a child in its first year. Supply whatever it needs Food jag: find a food they love and eat if for several weeks Attachment and Separation Anxiety Mary Ainsworth and her Theories of Attachment • Secure: 60% of kids, in a strange situation child is comfortable when mom is there, becomes upset when she leaves, when she returns they quickly calm • Avoidant: little contact with the mother, not as distressed upon her departure, and somewhat avoidant upon her return, defensive • Anxious/ambivalent: even with mother in the room they are still anxious, excessive protesting up
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