PS101 [REVIEW] Exam #3

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

● Dr. Grant’s lectures on Ch. 7, 9-11 ● Hannah’s discussion lecture 3/6 (Ch. 8) ○ Topics: Judgment & Decision Making, LanguageAcquisition, aphasia ● Dr. Grant’s Ch. 11 lecture to be given tomorrow 3/28 Chapter 7: Memory Basics of Memory ● Three key processes in memory ○ Encoding; Paying attention to a stimulus to form a memory “code” ○ Storage: Keeping encoded information in memory ○ Retrieval: Getting information out of memory ● Levels of processing/encoding: ○ Structural: What a word LOOKS like ○ Phonomic: What a word SOUNDS like ○ Semantic: What a word MEANS Types of Memory ● 3 box graph with arrows ● Sensory ○ Very rapid, in seconds ○ Types: Iconic, echoic ● Short-Term Memory ○ Holds about 7 +/-2 pieces of information ● Long-Term Memory ○ Unlimited storage ● Paying attention helps sensory become short-term, rehearsal helps short-term to long- term Working Memory ● Same as short-term memory ● Four components: ○ Phonological Loop: Mentally reciting something over and over again to hold it in mind ○ Visuospatial Sketchpad: Temporarily holding an image in your head ○ Central Executive System: Directs attention ○ Episodic Buffer: Connects to long-term memory Interference and Memory Loss ● Proactive interference ○ OLD information interferes with the retrieval of NEW information ● Retroactive interference ○ NEW information interferes with the retrieval of OLD information ● Retrograde amnesia ○ Can’t remember things from BEFORE memory damage ● Anterograde amnesia ○ Can’t make NEW memories Miscellaneous Memory ● Types of memories: ○ Declarative: FACTUAL information ■ Semantic: General information ■ Episodic: Memories of experiences ○ Nondeclarative: Skills, reflexes ● Serial position curve: People remember things better at the beginning and end of a list ○ Primacy Effect ○ Recency Effect Chapter 8: Language & Thought Fallacies and Biases ● Availability Heuristic: ○ Judging the likelihood of something based on how easily it comes to mind ● Representativeness Heuristic: ○ Classifying something/someone based on how well it represents your own idea of a category ● Confirmation Bias: ○ Looking for, noticing and remembering information that’s consistent with your expectations ● Gambler’s fallacy ○ Perceiving order/pattern in random events Theories of LanguageAcquisition ● Behaviorist: ○ Language is learned through imitation and reinforcement ● Nativist: ○ Language abilities are inborn and language learning is facilitated by a Language Acquisition Device ● Interactionist: ○ Language acquisition is partially biological, partially environmental Aphasia ● Broca’sAphasia ○ Can’t physically produce language, but can understand it ● Wernicke’s Aphasia ○ Can’t understand language, but can speak fluently ● Word Salad ○ General term for disorganized speech Misc. Points from 3/6 ● Theory of Bounded Rationality: ○ People are bad at processing information, so they make irrational judgments and decisions ● Algorithm VS. Heuristic: ○ Heuristic:Any mental “rule of thumb” that narrows the possible paths to a solution ○ Algorithm: mathematical step-by-step ● Maximizing VS. Satisficing: ○ Maximizing: Trying to find the best option of all possible options ○ Sati
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