COMPLETE General Psychology Lecture Notes [Part 2] - 93% on final

4 Pages

Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course Code
CAS PS 101
Maya Rosen

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Lecture 2 10/05/2010 How Psychologists Do Research How is it scientific? Precision Theories: organized systems of assumptions ▯ to explain phenomena and their interrelationships Hypothesis: Attempt to predict or account for a set of phenomena; specify relationships among variables  that are empirically tested Operational definitions: Specify how phenomena in question are to be observed/measured Skepticism Scientists do not accept ideas on faith/authority (treats conclusions, both old and new, with caution) Reliance on empirical evidence Relied upon to determine whether a hypothesis is true Willingness to make “risky predictions” Principle of falsifiability: A scientific theory must make predictions specific enough to confirm/disconfirm the  theory, must predict not only what will happen, but also what will not Confirmation bias: Tendency to look for/attend to only information which concerns one’s belief Openness Willingness to share source of ideas, how they are tested, and results Checks and balances: peer review, publishing and replicating of research The Scientific Method 1. Observing some phenomenon 2. Formulating hypothesis (an idea arrived at logically from a theory) and prediction 3. Testing through empirical research
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