COMPLETE Abnormal Psychology Notes: Part 2 (got 92% in the course)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 371

Exam IV Study Guide Chapter 16- Personality Disorders • Personality- stable and predictable psychological or behavioral characteristics that are inherited and/or learned, but flexible enough to help us learn and adapt to new environments. • Personality Disorders- are inflexible and interfere with an individual’s life and interpersonal interactions. o Associated with ways of thinking and feeling about oneself and others. o Patients don’t know that they have a disorder. o Behavior perceived as odd, abnormal or deviant by others. • Typically recognizable in adolescence or early adulthood. o However, treatment is not often sought- complicates development of models. o 9-13% adults suffer o About half of those diagnosed with one PD meet criteria for other additional PDs. o Considerable comorbidity with Axis I disorders. • General Diagnostic Criteria o Experience and/or behavior has to deviate from cultural expectations in at least 2 areas of:  Cognition  Affect  Interpersonal interaction  Impulse control o Inflexible and consistent across different situations and environments. o Lead to significant distress or functional impairment o Long duration • Exception to GDC o Children under 18 not diagnosed UNLESS:  Meet all criteria AND  Behavioral signs present for at least one year o For under 18, Antisocial Personality Disorder diagnosed as Conduct Disorder. • 10 Personality Disorders classified into three clusters o Cluster A- Odd or Eccentric behavior  Paranoid PD  Schizoid PD  Schizotypal PD o Cluster B- Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic behavior  Antisocial PD  Borderline PD  Histrionic PD  Narcissistic PD o Cluster C- Anxious or Fearful behavior  Avoidant PD  Dependent PD  Obsessive-Compulsive PD • Cluster A Central Features, Prevalence and Relation to Other Disorders o Discomfort with and/or suspicion about others. o Difficulty establishing relationships and fitting in. o Males> Females o May be related to schizophrenia, but differ in breadth and depth of symptoms. o May precede psychotic disorders o They must not occur exclusively during:  Schizophrenia  Other psychotic disorders  Mood disorders with psychotic features. Cluster A Defining Diagnostic Criteria Theoretical Treatment Disorder Characteristics Explanations Paranoid PD • Pervasive, • Questions others’ • Little research • Limited effect unjustifiable mistrust loyalty • Psychodynamic- and moves o*Not to extent of slowly • Reads hidden demanding parents removing patient meanings in others’ • CB- maladaptive • Object from reality actions assumptions relations • Isolated • Bears grudges all the therapy- see time • Biological- twin past anger to studies- genetic wish for • Perceives attacks on relationship character • CB- improve assumptions and interpersonal relationships Schizoid PD • Detachment from • No desire or • Psychodynamic- • CB- improve social relationships enjoyment of close unsatisfied need for emotions and • Restricted relationships human contact social skills interpersonal • Solitary activities o Parents cold with • Group therapy emotional expression • No pleasure from children • CB- trouble scanning activities environment for • Indifferent to praise or criticism accurate • Flat affect perceptions. o Thoughts vague and empty Schizotypal PD • Pervasive social • Odd beliefs, thinking, • Family conflicts, • Help clients isolation speech, behavior parent issues reconnect and • Interpersonal deficits and/or appearance • Biological- high recognize • Cognitive distortions • Unusual perceptual dopamine limits of experiences • Linked to mood thinking and • Behavioral • Paranoia powers. eccentricities disorders- • Antipsychotic • Know they are odd • Inappropriate or no depression drugs affect somewhat • Lack of close friends helpful • Social anxiety • Cluster B Central Features o Inappropriate or extreme overt behavior o Failure to conform to social norms o Self-centered o More commonly diagnosed than others o Cause not well understood o Treatments go from ineffective to moderately ineffective Cluster B Defining Diagnostic Criteria Theoretical Treatment Disorder Characteristics Explanations Antisocial PD • Lack of remorse or • Behavior must be • Psychodynamic- • Typically ineffective shame longstanding absence of parental • Lack of conscience • Self-centered • Must have history of love or desire to change • Poor judgment Conduct Disorder* • Behaviorist- modeling • Atypical • Lack of emotional • Only 18+ • Cognitive- attitudes that antipsychotic drugs response • 3 or more trivialize other people’s require backup characteristics of: needs research • Absence of anxiety o Failure to • Absence of delusions • Biological • CB- improve ability • Indifference to others’ conform to o Low serotonin- to feel empathy social or legal aggression • Processing rights norms o Deficient frontal lobe environmental cues • Lying, stealing, o Deceitfulness* function cheating o Impulsivity • Positive practice o Aggressiveness* o Low levels of anxiety • Major social and and arousal legal concern o Reckless o Genetic- identical • Not equivalent to disregard for twins criminality safety of others o Prenatal smoking o Irresponsibility* o Lack of and birth complications remorse* Borderline PD • Intense, unstable • Frantic efforts to • Psychodynamic- • Psychotherapy a bit relationships, self- avoid abandonment parental relationships- effective image and affect abuse, neglect o Difficult to strike • Overly sensitive to o Some supportive risk of separation or balance between rejection research empathizing with • Relationship o Sexual abuse patient and marked by • Biological- over- challenging way of idealization or reactive amygdala and thinking • Antidepressant, devaluation under-reactive antianxiety and • Suicidal behavior, prefrontal cortex threats, gestures or o Low serotonin antipsychotic drugs manipulation o Genetic help with suicide attempts • Hurt themselves • Biosocial- genetics + • Combination of drug • Reckless behavior psychosocial and psychotherapy • Alcohol or experience • Sociocultural- rapidly substance abuse changing cultural environments Histrionic PD • Excessive • Need to be center • Psychodynamic- cold • CB- improve emotionality and of attention parents- fear of helplessness attention-seeking • Lively, dramatic abandonment • Psychodynamic- behavior o Makes them act out • Appearance used to to require people to dependency attract attention act protectively • Drug therapy only • Emotionally shallow used for depression • CB- feel that they are symptoms • Highly suggestible helpless and require people to care for them. • Sociocultural- too much pressure from societal norms. Narcissistic PD • Grandiosity, self- • Preoccupied with • Psychodynamic- cold • No real treatment- importance, need for fantasies of parents too difficult admiration, lack of importance • CB- people treated too empathy • Use or exploit positively in life and others for self- taught to overvalue interest their self-worth • Expect to be • Sociocultural- “era of superior narcissism” participants in relationships • Workaholics- but don’t live up to expectations • Cluster C Central Features o Anxi
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