[MICR 3050] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 40 pages long Study Guide!

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Clemson
MICR 3050
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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MICRO 3050 Exam 1
What are microorganisms
o Organisms to small to see with the unaided eye
o Generally <1 mm in diameter, often unicellular
Exceptions include bacteria, giant viruses, yeast and fugi
o Reasons for why humans exist today
Account for most of biomass on Earth
First to generate oxygen via photosynthesis
at the forefront fro scientific breakthroughs in human and veterinary medicine,
agriculture, and industry
the effect that a microbe has on a human system is dependent on where the microbe is
located in the body
examples of use from humans include agriculture, fermentation, and biofuels
o Oldest form of life known
o Most populous and diverse group
2.5x10^30 microbial cells known
found everywhere, in any environment
o Play a major role in recycling essential elements (Nitrogen and Carbon)
o Most are beneficial or benign, very few are harmful
Structure and Activities of Microbial Cells
o Microbes include cellular (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) and acellular (viruses and their
components)
o Elements of Microbial Structure
Cytoplasmic membrane
Separates inside from outside of cells
Cytoplasm
Inside of cell
Contains macromolecules
o Proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
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MICRO 3050 Exam 1
Ribosomes
Protein production
Cell wall
Found in plant cells, strengthens cell membrane and facilitates entrance and exit
of molecules
o Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
Prokaryote
Bacteria and Archaea
o Simple and smaller
Eukaryote
More complex
Membrane-bound organelles and nucleus
Mitochondria as well as chloroplasts
Algae, protozoa, protists, and fungi
Genome differences
In prokaryotes, genome is found in an area containing genetic information,
called the nucleoid, as well as plasmids
In eukaryotes, genome is found bound in chromosomes in the nucleus
o Activities of Microbial Cells
Properties of All cells
Metabolism
o Cells take up nutrients, transform them, and expel waste
o Genetic
Replication, transcription, and translation
o Catalytic
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