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Study Guide

[BZ 110] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 28 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Botany/Zoology
Course Code
BZ 110
Professor
Karen Raines
Study Guide
Midterm

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CSU
BZ 110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Centriole Located within
microtubule-
organizing center
Contains nine triplet
microtubules
Forms basal body of
cilia and flagella
Functions in mitotic
spindle formation
Chloroplast Organelle that
contains chlorophyll
and is involved in
photosynthesis
Traps, transforms,
and uses light energy
to convert carbon
dioxide and water into
glucose and oxygen
Chromosome Made up of nucleic
acid (DNA) and
protein
Controls heredity and
cellular activities
Cilia, flagella Threadlike processes Cilia and flagella
move small particles
past fixed cells and
are a major form of
locomotion in some
cells
Cytomembrane system The endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi
apparatus, vacuoles,
and vesicles
Organelles,
functioning as a
system, modify,
package, and
distribute newly
formed proteins and
lipids
Cytoplasm Semifluid enclosed
within plasma
membrane
Consists of fluid
cytosol and
cytomembrane
system
Dissolves substances
Houses organelles
and vesicles
Cytoskeleton Interconnecting
microfilaments and
microtubules
Flexible cellular
framework
Assists in cell
movement
Provides support
Site for binding of
specific enzymes
Cytosol Fluid part of
cytoplasm
Enclosed within
plasma membrane
Surrounds nucleus
Houses organelles
Serves as fluid
medium for metabolic
reactions
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Extensive membrane
system extending
throughout the
cytoplasm from the
plasma membrane to
the nuclear envelope
Storage and internal
transport
Rough ER is a site for
attachment of
ribosomes
Smooth ER makes
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lipids
Exosome Cell-derived vesicles Carry signals to
distant parts of an
animal’s body
Golgi apparatus Stacks of disklike
membranes
Sorts packages, and
routes cell’s
synthesized products
Lysosome Membrane-bound
sphere
Digests materials
Microbodies Vesicles that are
formed from the
incorporation of lipids
and proteins and that
contain oxidative and
other enzymes
● Peroxisomes
Isolate particular
chemical activities
from the rest of the
cell
Microfilament (actin filament) Rodlike structure
containing the protein
actin
Gives structural
support and assists in
cell movement
Microtubule Hollow, cylindrical
structure
Assists in movement
of cilia, flagella, and
chromosomes
Transport system
Microtubule-organizing center Cloud of cytoplasmic
material that contains
centrioles
Dense site in the
cytoplasm that gives
rise to large numbers
of microtubules with
different functions in
the cytoskeleton
Mitochondrion Organelle with
double; folded
membranes
Converts energy into
a form the cell can
use
Nucleolus Rounded mass within
nucleus
Contains RNA and
protein
Preassembly point for
ribosomes
Nucleus Spherical structure
surrounded by a
nuclear envelope
Contains nucleolus
and DNA
Contains DNA that
controls cell’s genetic
program and
metabolic activities
Plasma membrane The outer bilayer
boundary of the cell
Composed of protein,
cholesterol, and
phospholipids
● Protection
Regulation of material
movement
Cell-to-cell recognition
Ribosome Contains RNA and
protein
Some are free and
some attach to ER
Site of protein
synthesis
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