[NES 2674] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (69 pages long)

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Cornell
NES 2674
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Class Introduction:
Bring “The Modern Middle East in Documents” and other primary sources to discussion section
Prepare questions
Short paragraph?
Lecture One:
To what extent is the Ottoman Empire a continuation of the Byzantine Empire?
The turkish language
Kept Byzantine tax & tax bureaucratic infrastructure
If you were paying taxes there was administrative flexibility
Byzantine feudal practices and land tenure
Kingship and courtly rituals
Maintain Greek Orthodox Church to govern local population
Architecture
Did the open-ended governing style of the Ottoman empire help support its longevity?
Rise in Jewish population- expelled Jew from Spain were welcomed within Ottoman
Empire
See slide in lecture presentation
General background information:
Mostly from central Asia, until mass migration that settled in the modern day middle east
and turkey 10th 14th century AD
Through westward movement, converted to Islam
“Clan of Osman” Osman I (1258-1326)
Expansion into NW Anatolia & to Sea of Marmara (1350s) Bursa (became Capital)
Won out against other tribes politically and militarily
Mongols pushed clans further west
Allied with Byzantines against competing E. European principalities
By 1340s Steady expansion into E. Europe
1389 Battle of Kosovo (defeated coalition of Serbs, Hungarians & Bulgarians)
Ottoman Expansion:
Mehmed II (1451-1481)
Captures Constantinople in 1453
Expanded into Serbia, Bosnia, and Greece
Salim I
Expanded in Middle East; Syria (1516) Egypt 1517, and Arabia (1517)
Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66)
Empire expanded to Hungary, N. Africa, most of M. East
Reaches the gates of Vienna
The expansion occurs in waves.
For what reason was the Byzantine Empire allowing the Ottoman expansion?
Ottoman Organization:
Administrative flexibility (kept local institutions)
Extensive Bureaucracy
Whenever possible… they governed lightly
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Millet System:
Allowed ethnic/ religious minorities to “govern” themselves
Citizens bound by confessional communities (millet)
Each millet set its own law and collection of taxes
Chapter Three: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
The Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman Empires were rapidly spreading the word of Islam
Safavid established Shi'ism as the predominant sect of Islam in Iran
Ottomans appointed shari’ah judges to enforce Islamic law
The Ottoman Empire can be considered a European and Middle Eastern power
The Ottoman warriors were driven by the Gazi spirit and desire to push back or convert
other non-muslims while taking their belongings.
On page 36 it says that the Ottoman warriors were not afraid of death because of religious
reasons. The chapter also claims that they attacked muslim and non-muslim targets in the same
frequency. How is this different from other religions? What does this say about Ottoman culture
in general? All for one or one for all? Was there a sense of nationality?
Osman’s son captures Bursa and began his own state, the Ottoman Empire. He was a
giza
Christantople became Istanbul, a thriving metropolis.
Why did people join the Ottoman Empire? Safety? Economic opportunity?
The Ottoman Army was better fed and equipped than their enemies
Defeating the Mamluk Army, the Ottomans incorporated Arab culture into the Empire
Considered Caliphs but didn't use the term until in 19th century to ward off
Europeans
Ottoman administration was absolutist, bureaucratic, agrarian based empire
Reasons for expansion/ ability or Ottoman Empire to remain intact
Giza
Gold, glory
The legacy of Islamic Law in the communal setting
Light governing as long as taxes were paid
The rulers(askerias) and the ruled(reaya), mostly military and religious leaders
received tax exemptions
The ruling elite were highly educated
Uneducated were called turks
The sultan-caliph, the ultimate ruler. All princes competed for the throne, others were
ordered dead.
The grand vizier provided was the main cabinet member to the caliph and could order
things in his name.
Kept the dynasty alive regardless of weak leaders
The Ottoman Slave Elite
The devshirme system produced soldiers for the infantry corps and provided the
Ottoman state with its top-ranking military commanders and civilian
administrators
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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