Geography 1011 Final Study Guide The final will consist of 70 questions from the past three midterms, and 30 questions from the new material that was taught after the third midterm. Therefore; I have designed this study guide to focus on the past three midterm questions and the information that those questions cover (this is not based off the past three midterm study guides, just the actual tests!) Midterm 2: Landscapes, soils, carbon cycle, and forces. Landscapes. o The result of the interaction between processes that build up and tear down topography. o Tectonic processes are generally responsible for building topography. o Topography adds potential energy to rocks by lifting them. o Erosion wears down topography and is driven mainly by water and gravity. o Geomorphology is the study of landscapes. Soils. o A natural, dynamic material composed of matter from rocks and organic matter (or anything a soil scientist says is a soil). Also, a residue that develops over time from rock and inputs from organisms. o Remember CLORPT for soil formation CL: Climate. O: Organisms. R: Relief. P: Parent Material. T: Time. o Soils differ across landscapes due to different parent material, vegetation, landforms, slope positions, etc. o Pedon. A natural body of soil that is large enough to allow classification of the soil. Pedology is the study of soils. o Horizons. Surface parallel layers that differ in composition or structure due to pedogenic processes. O horizon: Organic, surface accumulation of organic matter in any state of decomposition (or not). No mineral matter, only organic matter. Ex. Pine needles, debris. If you were looking at a soil diagram (there will probably be one), this is the upper most, thin layer on the very top of the diagram. A horizon: Top soil. A mixture of minerals and organic matter. More organic matter than underlying horizons. Organic matter is humified (decomposed), which makes it dark and nutrient rich.