FINAL STUDY GUIDE.docx

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Department
Speech, Language & Hearing Sci
Course
SLHS 2010
Professor
Ryan Pollard
Semester
Spring

Description
Language1WecandescribehowhumansinteractwitheachotherasSpeechasLanguageandorasCommunicationHowdothesethreedifferSpeechverbalmeansofcommunicatingorconveyingmeaningReferstosoundLanguageiscommunicatingusingarbitrarysymbolslettersgesturesthatarerulegovernedrulesphoneticsphonologymorphologysyntaxsemanticspragmaticsdiscourseItcanbeverbalwrittenorsignedCommunicationthewayinwhichpeopleexchangeinformationandideas2WhatisParalinguisticCommunicationGiveexamplesThingswedowhenweuselanguagethatchangethemeaningsarcasmurgencydoubtintonationstressrateandpauses3WhatisNonlinguisticCommunicationGiveexamplesNonlinguisticCommunicationconveyingmeaningwithoutlanguageKinemicsstudyofgesturesbodyposturesfacialexpressionseyecontactheadandbodymovementProxemicsStudyoftheculturalbehavioralandsociologicalaspectsofspatialdistancesbetweenindividuals4WhenapersonlistenstoaspeakerhisorherperceptiondependsonbothbottomupandtopdowninformationWhataretheseHowaretheydifferentBottomupTheprocessingbasedontheactualperceptionsnotonanypriorknowledgeorexpectationPerceptionoftheworldisbasedonthesensorydataavailableintheenvironmentyour5sensesItistheprocessingofastimulusthroughitsphysicalfeaturesThecombinationofthesesimplefeaturesallowsustorecognizemorecomplexpatternsTopdownOurperceptionoftheworldisinfluencedbyexpectationsexistingbeliefscontextandexperience5WhatistheSpeechChainWhatistheprototypicalexample SpeechChainIdeaconvertideatowordslanguagemusclescontractinordertocreatemovementtomakevocalizationsoundscreatephysicalsoundwavesthesetravelandaretransmittedtosomeoneearsneedtochangetheacousticsoundwaveintosomethingthatcanthentraveltothebrainthenconvertbacktowordslanguagethenwehaveitTheprototypicalspeechchainistwopeoplestandingfacetofacespeakingtooneanotherbutitwillvarydependingonwherethepeopleareandwhattheyaretryingtoconvey6Howmanydifferentlanguagesarespokenintheworldtoday600070007WhatdoesitmeanwhenalanguageisdeadExtinct DyinglanguageveryfewnativespeakersDeadlanguagetherearenonativespeakersExtinctlanguagetherearenonativeornonnativespeakersofitAreasofLanguageGrouping1PhoneticsThestudyofspeechsoundproductionandperceptionThebasicunitisthephonePhonologystudyofthesmallestmeaninglessunitsofspeechsoundphonemesMorphologythestudyofthesmallestmeaningfulunitsofspeechmorphemesSemanticswordmeaningSyntaxTheorderthatphrasesarearrangedPragmaticsLanguageuseandfunctionDiscourseStyleAppropriatenessCohesivenessRhetoricalforcepersuasivenessTopicsubtopicstructureGrouping2OutputFormMeaningUse8WhichareasoflanguageinGroup1correspondtowhichFunctionalCategoriesinGroup2PhoneticsinputoutputPhonlogyformMorphologyformSemanticsmeaningSyntaxformPragmaticsuseDiscourseUse9WhatisGrammarWhatisthedifferencebetweenDescriptiveandPrescriptiveGrammarsFormmeaninggrammarDescriptivegrammaroWhatpeopleactuallydowithlanguagePrescriptivegrammarRulesthatdescribewhataspeakersgrammaroughttobeWhatspeakersshouldnotdowithlanguage10HowdoPhonesPhonemesandAllophonesrelatetooneanotherPhoneanyspeechsoundPhonemessmallestmeaninglessunitsofspeechsoundAllophonesDifferentwaystopronouncethesamephoneme11WhatisaPhonologicalInventoryIsthePhonologicalInventorythesameforeachlanguageExplainThePhonologicalInventoryisthementalinventorofthesoundsproducedbyanygivenpersonwhospeaksanygivenlanguagePhonologicalinventoriesvaryfromlanguagetolanguagebecausesomelanguagesusedifferentphonesthanothers12WhatisPhonotacticsArePhonotacticsthesameforeachlanguageItisthestudyoftherulesandrestrictionsgoverningthepossiblephonemesequencescombinationsinalanguageTheyarenotthesameforeachlanguageotherwiselanguageswouldnotbeasdiverseastheyarenow13WhatisthedifferencebetweenFreeandBoundmorphemesBetweenRootsandAffixesRootvsAffixesTherootThemorphemethatcarriestheprimarymeaningofthewordExBlackberrystrawberryTheAffixesattachtotheroottoformnewmeaningsPrefixesattachtothefrontasinundoorredoSufficesattachtotheendasindancerordancingFreevsBoundmorphemesFreemorphemescanbewordsontheirownBoundmorphemescannotstandaloneasindependentwords14WhatisSyntaxWhatisthedifferencebetweenaSimpleSentenceaCompoundSentenceandaComplexSentenceSyntaxTheorderthatphrasesarearrangedSimplesentenceonesubjectandonepredicateCompoundsentencecontainatleasttwosentencesjoinedbyaconjunctionComplexsentencecontainsasimplesentenceandatleast1dependentclause15HowdoWordOrderlanguagesdifferfromCaseMarkedlanguages
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