A mutation to the genetic material of a skin cell triggers abnormal cell division and changes cell
formation, resulting in a cancerous tumor. (p. 369)
Causes of cancer are generally divided into two categories of risk factors: hereditary and
acquired. (p. 369)
Over the years, researchers have found that diet, a sedentary lifestyle, overconsumption of
alcohol, tobacco use, and stress play a key role in the incidence of cancer. (p. 370)
Cancers are grouped into four broad categories based on the type of tissue from which each arise.
What are they? (p. 373)
• Carcinomas: epithelial tissues (tissues covering body surfaces and lining most body
• Sarcomas: mesodermal, or middle layers of tissue—for example, in bones, muscles, and
general connective tissue.
• Lymphomas: lymphatic system—the infection-fighting regions of the body.
• Leukemias: blood-forming parts of the body, particularly the bone marrow and spleen.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women in the United States.
When evaluating skin for changes in moles, what does A.B.C.D. stand for? (p. 376-7)
• Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter
A woman who began to have sex at an early age may be at risk for cervical cancer. (p. 378)
The earlier cancer is diagnosed, the better the prospect for survival. (p. 379)
Diabetes is the fastest-growing chronic disease ever to affect Americans. (p. 387)
Excess sugar in your diet can lead to insulin resistance. Insulin Resistance: State in which body
cells fail to respond to the effects of insulin; obesity increases the risk that cells will become
insulin resistant. (p. 389)
Studies have shown that people with pre-diabetes can prevent or delay the development of type 2
diabetes by up to 58% through lifestyle changes, including modest weight loss through a healthy
diet and regular exercise. (p. 393)
Losing 5% - 7% of body weight can cause significant reductions in blood glucose levels and help
prevent diabetes. (p. 393)
You may think you are too young to worry about developing diabetes, but the statistics say
otherwise. In the past decade, cases of type 2 diabetes in people under the age of 20 have risen
to the tens of thousands. Overall, the risk of death among people with diabetes is about twice
that of people of similar ag