PSYC 111 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Naturalistic Fallacy, Genetic Fallacy, Twin

96 views14 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

PSYC111
EXAM 1 VOCABULARY
CHAPTER 1: PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC THINKING
Psychology: the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior; a discipline that spans
multiple levels of analysis
Psyche: the spirit or soul
Levels of analysis: compared to as rungs on a ladder, with the lower rungs tied most
closely to biological influences and the higher rungs tied most closely to social influences;
stretch all the way from molecules to brain structures on the low rungs to thoughts, feelings,
and emotions and to social and cultural influences on the high rungs
Multiply determined: produced by many factors; ex: human behavior
Individual differences: variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality, and
behavior; help to explain why we each person responds in different ways to the same
objective situation
Reciprocal determinism: the fact that we mutually influence each other’s behavior; can
make it challenging to isolate the causes of human behavior
Naive realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is
Empiricism: the premise that knowledge should initially be acquired through observation;
the beginning of science
Scientific Theory: an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world; offers
an account that ties multiple findings together
Science: the systematic approach to evidence
Hypothesis: a testable prediction derived from a scientific theory
Confirmation bias: the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and
deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them
Belief perseverance: the tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence
contradicts them
Metaphysical claim: an assertion about the world that is not testable
Introspection: a method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their
mental experiences
Structuralism: school of psychology that aimed to identify the basic elements of
psychological experience; asked “what” questions; map elements of consciousness in terms
of understanding experience
Functionalism: school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of
psychological characteristics; “why” questions; goal to understand the functions of thoughts,
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
of understanding experience
Functionalism: school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of
psychological characteristics; “why” questions; goal to understand the functions of thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors
Natural selection: principle that organisms that possess adaptations survive and reproduce
at a higher rates than do other organisms; founded by Charles Darwin
Behaviorism: school of psychology that focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning
by looking at observable behavior; aka “black box psychology;” goal is to uncover the
general principles of learning
Cognitive psychology/Cognitivism: school of psychology that proposes that thinking is
central to understanding behavior; focuses on insight; goal is to examine the role of mental
processes on behavior
Cognitive neuroscience: relatively new field of psychology that examines the relation
between brain functioning and thinking
Psychoanalysis: school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that focuses on internal
psychological processes of which we’re unaware; goal is to uncover the role of
unconsciousness
Freudian slip: an unintentional error regarded as revealing subconscious feelings
The Nature-Nurture Debate: debate if our behaviors attributable mostly to our genes or
to our rearing environments
Evolutionary psychology: discipline that applies Darwin’s theory of natural selection to
human and animal behavior
Fitness: the extent to which a trait increases the change that organisms that possess this trait
will survive and reproduce at a higher rate than competitors who lack it; reliant solely on
genes
The Free Will-Determinism Debate: debate of to what extent are our behaviors freely
selected rather than caused by factors outside our control?
Basic research: research examining how the mind works
Applied research: research examining how we can use basic research to solve real-world
problems
Pseudoscience: set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t; lacks the safeguards against
confirmation bias and belief perseverance that characterize science
Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis: escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use
to protect their theory from falsification; most major sign of pseudoscience
Patternicity: the tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli
Terror management theory: theory proposing that our awareness of death leaves us with
an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural
worldviews; suggests we’re likely to hold many paranormal beliefs regardless of whether
they’re correct
Emotional reasoning fallacy: the error of using our emotions as guides for evaluating the
validity of a claim
Bandwagon fallacy: the error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people
believe it
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Bandwagon fallacy: the error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people
believe it
Not me fallacy: the error of believing that we’re immune from errors in thinking that afflict
other people
Either-or fallacy: the error of framing a question as though we can only answer it in one of
two extreme ways
Appeal to authority fallacy: the error of accepting a claim merely because an authority
figure endorses it
Genetic fallacy: the errors of confusing the correctness of a belief with its origins or
genesis
Argument from adverse consequences fallacy: the error of confusing the validity of an
idea with tis potential real-world consequences
Appeal to ignorance fallacy: the error of assuming that a claim must be true because no
one has shown it to be false
Naturalistic fallacy: the error of inferring a moral judgment from a scientific fact
Hasty generalization fallacy: the error of drawing a conclusion on the basis of
insufficient evidence
Circular reasoning fallacy: the error of basing a claim reworded in slightly different terms
Bias blind spot: the phenomenon that most people are unaware of their biases but are
keenly aware of them in others
Scientific skepticism: the approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting
on persuasive evidence before accepting them
Critical thinking: a set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful
fashion
Correlation-causation fallacy: the error of assuming that because one thing is associated
with another, it must cause the other
Variable: anything that can vary
Third variable problem: it’s possible that variable A causes variable B and vice-versa, but
there’s a third variable, C, that causes both A and B; can lead us to mistakenly conclude that
A and B are causally related
Falsifiable: capable of being disproved
Replicability: when a study’s findings are able to be duplicated, ideally by independent
investigators
Decline effect: the fact that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be
shrinking over time
Occam’s razor/principle of parsimony: if two explanations account equally well for a
phenomenon, we should generally accept the more parsimonious (logically simple) one; gets
rid of needlessly complicated explanations to arrive at the simplest explanation that does a
good job of accounting for the evidence
Parsimony: logical simplicity
Keep it simple, stupid: the Occam’s Razor’s principle given the acronym KISS
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class