PCB 4594 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Messenger Rna, Mesoderm, Gene

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20 Nov 2018
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PCB 4594
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What happens if an extra ZPA is grafted?
Duplication of structures
What are Hox genes important for?
Patterning in limb
Perturbations in Shh signaling can cause what?
Polydactyly (extra digits)
Name 4 model organisms commonly used in regeneration research
Planaria (flatworms)
Crickets & Axoloti (Salamander)
Goldfish & Mice
Morphallaxis
New cell division occurs
Re-patterning of existing tissue
Epimorphosis
Growth of completely new patterned structures
Ex: Limb regrowth
Blastema
Regeneration bud
-undifferentiated proliferating cells
What kind of signaling is important for establishing polarity (direction) of regeneration?
Wnt/ B-Catenin
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-posterior side of worm expresses this
What types of tissues can be regenerated in salamanders?
Limbs, heart tissue, lens tissue
Prod 1
Key protein in patterning that encodes proximal/distal values in regenerating limbs
-only found in Salamanders
Efh
Family of proteins found in salamanders that also appear to be involved in regeneration
What is the biggest risk factor for cancer?
Aging
Name 3 aging-related diseases besides cancer
Alzheimers
Diabetes Type II
Parkinsons
Hayflick Limit
Most cells in culture can't divide indefinitely but will age and no longer divide after a tissue-specific limit
What is Senescence?
Cellular aging
What is Senescence related to?
Replication (# of cell divisions) & to stress
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