SPC 4445 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Theory Z, Theory X And Theory YExam
Course CodeSPC 4445
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Communication for Effective Leadership
Chapter FOUR Notes
1.Authoritarian: Leaders exert influence and control over group members. Communication is
top-down. The agenda is set by the leaders. Praise/criticism is given freely, but it is based on
personal standards. Resembles THEORY X
2.Democratic: Resembles assumptions of Theory Y. Subordinates are capable of working on
their own. Leader works with subordinates and treats them in an egalitarian manner. Leader does
not speak down to group members; rather, they speak on the same level.
3.Laissez Faire: Dissimilar to both Theory X and Theory Y—typically considered to be non-
leadership. The leader is nominal and only engages in minimal influence. Literally takes a
"hands off" attitude. The leader does not try to influence or control the group.
4.Theory X: People dislike work and will try to avoid it. People need to be directed and
controlled. People want security, not responsibility.
5.Theory Y: People don't inherently dislike work; doing work is as natural as play. People will
show responsibility and self-control toward goals to which they are committed. People accept
and seek responsibility.
6.Theory Z: Emphasizes communication, collaboration, and consensual decision-making. Also
incorporates individualistic values such as formal authority structures, individual contributions,
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