What does it mean for a pattern of behavior to have an endogenous circadian
rhythm? 24 hours, biology based not by the environment what influence do
zeitgebers have on these cycles? Environmental factors, most typical zeitgeber for
humans is light.
What brain area is necessary for the generation of endogenous cycles? SCN In
what specific way does it receive input? Describe the cycles of the proteins and
hormone associated with biological clock regulation.
Differentiate between the stages of sleep. Awake, Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3 & 4,
REM. What dos the slowing of brain waves as sleep progresses indicate? How is
REM sleep paradoxical? Because it looks like Stage 1/awakeness but it is the
deepest form of sleep.
List the areas of the brain involved in arousal and wakefulness and the
neurotransmitters that they signal with (use the matching study guide!). What is
the main neurotransmitter that maintains sleep? GABA
How can a practitioner diagnose insomnia? How much is impacts someone’s daily
life Describe two conditions that are caused by interrupted sleep. Narcolepsy, and
Describe the main components of a homeostatic system. Attempt to keep a certain
variable at a set-point through use of negative feedback Why does fluid balance
need to be so tightly controlled?
What causes the two types of thirst? Osmotic thirst: increased salt content of
extracellular fluid and Hypovolemic thirst: fluid loss (bleeding, sweating,
In which do you need both fluid and salt? Hypovolemic How does ADH help re-
regulate both situations? It reabsorbs water, so fluids can flow back to the cells.
What do angiotensin-II and aldosterone each do? When combined, what type of
behavior do they induce? High angiotensin-II levels, low blood pressure, and low
sodium levels promote release of aldosterone from adrenal glands Causes kidneys,
salivary glands, and sweat glands to retain salt Together with angiotensin-II,
promotes behavioral preference for high concentrations of salt
Lecture 28 Detail how insulin and glucagon can be described as a means by which food intake
is homeostatically regulated. Insulin: allows glucose to enter and be used by cells
when blood sugar levels are high. Glucagon: stimulates liver to release glycogen
as glucose when blood sugar levels are low What are some other peptides that
work as negative feedback for promoting satiation (other study guide!)?
How does the stomach play an active role in monitoring and controlling eating
behavior? Stretch receptors in the stomach end a bout of food intake via the vagus
nerve. Brain receives information regarding the nutritive content of the stomach
via the splanchnic nerves (Helps determine how quickly the stomach will empty
its contents into the duodenum). The stomach also produces ghrelin, a peptide that
increases food intake and reported hunger.
What does leptin regulate? Body fat Why does leptin treatment not help reduce
weight in most cases of obesity? Leptin receptors are no longer sensitive.
Detail how the neuron types in the arcuate nucleus can be described as a means by
which food intake is homeostatically regulated. A hunger