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PSB2000 test 4 study guide

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Florida State University
PSB 2000
Clare Mathes

Lecture 25 What does it mean for a pattern of behavior to have an endogenous circadian rhythm? 24 hours, biology based not by the environment what influence do zeitgebers have on these cycles? Environmental factors, most typical zeitgeber for humans is light. What brain area is necessary for the generation of endogenous cycles? SCN In what specific way does it receive input? Describe the cycles of the proteins and hormone associated with biological clock regulation. Differentiate between the stages of sleep. Awake, Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3 & 4, REM. What dos the slowing of brain waves as sleep progresses indicate? How is REM sleep paradoxical? Because it looks like Stage 1/awakeness but it is the deepest form of sleep. Lecture 26 List the areas of the brain involved in arousal and wakefulness and the neurotransmitters that they signal with (use the matching study guide!). What is the main neurotransmitter that maintains sleep? GABA How can a practitioner diagnose insomnia? How much is impacts someone’s daily life Describe two conditions that are caused by interrupted sleep. Narcolepsy, and Sleep Apnea Lecture 27 Describe the main components of a homeostatic system. Attempt to keep a certain variable at a set-point through use of negative feedback Why does fluid balance need to be so tightly controlled? What causes the two types of thirst? Osmotic thirst: increased salt content of extracellular fluid and Hypovolemic thirst: fluid loss (bleeding, sweating, diarrhea) In which do you need both fluid and salt? Hypovolemic How does ADH help re- regulate both situations? It reabsorbs water, so fluids can flow back to the cells. What do angiotensin-II and aldosterone each do? When combined, what type of behavior do they induce? High angiotensin-II levels, low blood pressure, and low sodium levels promote release of aldosterone from adrenal glands Causes kidneys, salivary glands, and sweat glands to retain salt Together with angiotensin-II, promotes behavioral preference for high concentrations of salt Lecture 28 Detail how insulin and glucagon can be described as a means by which food intake is homeostatically regulated. Insulin: allows glucose to enter and be used by cells when blood sugar levels are high. Glucagon: stimulates liver to release glycogen as glucose when blood sugar levels are low What are some other peptides that work as negative feedback for promoting satiation (other study guide!)? How does the stomach play an active role in monitoring and controlling eating behavior? Stretch receptors in the stomach end a bout of food intake via the vagus nerve. Brain receives information regarding the nutritive content of the stomach via the splanchnic nerves (Helps determine how quickly the stomach will empty its contents into the duodenum). The stomach also produces ghrelin, a peptide that increases food intake and reported hunger. What does leptin regulate? Body fat Why does leptin treatment not help reduce weight in most cases of obesity? Leptin receptors are no longer sensitive. Lecture 29 Detail how the neuron types in the arcuate nucleus can be described as a means by which food intake is homeostatically regulated. A hunger
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