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Introduction to Brain and Behavior [NOTES] Part 3 -- I got a 92% in the course

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSB 2000
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Resting Potential and Action Potential  Resting potential: ­70 milivolts, nothing is going on with the cell, the inside of the cell is  more negative than the outside  There is an electrical gradient (different charge inside versus outside); it’s polarized • When the inside becomes less negative/closer to what the outside is, it becomes  “depolarized” → How? Allow sodium ions into the cell, adding a positive charge into the cell • When it becomes more negative/farther from what the outside is, it becomes  “hyperpolarized” → How? Open up potassium channels, allowing it to leave  How do we maintain resting potential? • Selective permeability: as long as we mostly keep channels closed, we can maintain  it; sodium channels are kept shut very tight; potassium can leak a bit  • Sodium potassium pump: 40­70% of cell’s energy is used; 3 sodium ions out for  every 2 potassium ions it pumps in   Action potential: electrical current that travels down the axon; sodium in potassium out;  travels all the way down the axon ending at the terminal  Concentration gradient: ions flow to area of lower concentration; diffusion; (like sugar  going to the bottom of your tea)  Electrical gradient: opposites attract; positively charged ion will be attracted to a  negatively charged environment and vice versa • If a potassium channel opens, what will the concentration gradient (diffusion) try to  force potassium to do? Diffuse out • If a potassium channel opens, what will the electrical gradient try to force potassium  to do? Stay in • What happens if sodium rushes 
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