PSY 2012 Quiz: Gen Psych review exam 2

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Florida State University
PSY 2012
Cassie Ann Stutts Berry

Gen Psych review Biological Psychology: • Dendrites receive information, Info travels down axons and axon terminals release information • Synapse: Place where axon terminal branches of one neuron meets the dendrites of another neuron • Synaptic Cleft: Space between neurons (never touch) • Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that neurons use to communicate with one another • How neurons communicate: o Neurons respond to neurotransmitters by generating electrical activity o Resting potential when no neurotransmitters are acting on a neuron o Action potential will occur when there is enough of a charge in the neuron • Neurotransmission: o Communication inside neuron is electrical but communication between neurons is chemical via neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters released and bind to receptor sites of the next neuron o Halted by reuptake when neurotransmitters go back into the axon terminal o Some neurotransmitters are excitatory and some are inhibitory ▪ GABA: inhibitory, decreases chance that neurons will communicate ▪ Glutamate: Excitatory, increases chances neurons will communicate • Nervous system structure: • Peripheral nervous system: o Links CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands o Consists of all nerves in the body outside the brain and spinal cord o Somatic and Autonomic nervous system ➢ Somatic: Interacts with outside environments o Sends signals from sense organs and skin to the CNS o Sends signals from CNS to skeletal muscles to cause voluntary muscle contraction ➢ Autonomic: o Connects CNS to smooth involuntary muscles and organs and to body’s hormone producing glands o Two components: Parasympathetic and sympathetic o Rest and digest and fight or flight Cerebral Cortex: • Forebrain is most developed part of brain • Two sides divided by corpus collosum • Each side divided into four lobes separated by fissures • Corpus Callosum: large group of axons that connect Left and Right hemispheres that allows for communication between both spheres • Split brain patients have a severed corpus callosum Frontal Lobe: • Assists in motor function, language and memory • Executive memory and has the motor cortex o Prefrontal cortex responsible for thinking, planning and language ▪ Plays a role in personality and mood ▪ Phineas Gage • Broca’s area: Production of language o Loss of ability to produce language (spoken and written) Parietal Lobe: • Specialized for touch and perception and contains somatosensory cortex o Sensitive to pressure pain and temperature • Communicates info to the motor cortex every time we reach, grasp or move our eyes Temporal Lobe: • Plays a role in hearing and understanding language • Autobiographical memories • Contains auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area for comprehension of speech • Wernicke’s aphasia: o Reading severely impaired o Writing is often similar or worse impairments as speaking Occipital lobe: • Specialized for vision and contains the visual cortex Basal Ganglia: • Forebrain structure that helps us control _____________ • Allows us to preform movements to obtain rewards and reinforcements • Damage contributes to Parkinson’s disease Limbic System: • Emotional center of brain and has a role in smell, motivation and memory o Thalamus: Sits on top of brain stem ▪ Brains sensory switchboard ▪ Receives sensory input and sends info to specialized regions of the brain o Hypothalamus: Regulates body’s internal environment ▪ Regulates some emotion (anger and fear) and drives hunger thirst and sex ▪ The four F’s: Fighting fleeing feeding and sex o Amygdala: Tied to aggression and fear ▪ Important for information of emotional memories o Hippocampus: Helps receive the events themselves ▪ Plays a role in processing explicit memory(declarative) o Brain stem: connects cerebral cortex and spinal cord ▪ Preforms basic bodily functions ▪ Serves as relay station between cortex ▪ and the rest of the nervous system o Midbrain: Movement, tracking visual stimuli and sound reflexes o Pons: Connect cortex and cerebellum, part of dreams o Medulla: regulates breathing, heartbeat and other vital functions o Spinal cord: conveys signals between brain and body o cerebellum controls balance and coordinated movements Mapping the brain: • Electrical stimulation • Lesion studies • Electroencephalograph (EEG) o Measures electrical activity via electrodes placed on skull o Can tell which regions of the brain are active during specific tasks • Brain Scans o Allows us to see the brain (CT, PET, MRI and fMRI scans) • Magnetic stimulation and recording o Transitional magnetic stimulation (TMS) ▪ Applies to strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the surface of the skull that can enhance or interrupt brain function • Allows for causal determination of functioning Sensation and Perception What is sensation? • Detection of physical energy by sense organs, stimulus is then converted into neural activity via transduction • Building block of brain and behavior What is perception? • Interpretation of raw sensory inputs, involves interpretation of outside world and one’s inner world • Closely tied to thought and memory • Cognitive system actively tries to create meaningful patterns • Perception is integration of what is actually out there and “top down” processing Two interacting processes: • Top down processing: conceptually driven organization and interpretation on information o Experiences/ expectations • Bottom up processing: sensory detection and encoding. Construction of whole from parts o Lines, Angles, Shapes, items that grab attention In attentional Blindness vs. Change Blindness In attentional Change Failure to see something present in display Failure to notice something different about the display Unexpected but fully visible Involves memory Selective attention Thresholds: • Absolute: Minimum stimulation needed to detect stimuli 50% of the time • Difference: Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time o Just noticeable differences (JND) • Signal detection theory: Predicts when and how we detect the presence of faint stimulus amid background stimulation o Detection depends on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation and level of fatigue • Subliminal advertising o Advertisements aimed under the absolute threshold o Subliminal stimuli: subtle fleeting effect ▪ Priming and pleasantness ▪ Priming on familiarity and recognition o Does not have a powerful effect Sensory adaptation: • Activation is greatest when stimulus is first detected • Sensitivity diminished as a consequence • Benefits of sensory adaptation: o Reduced sensitivity to a constant sensory info frees us to focus on information changes in our environment o Echoes key points about perception o Our perception of the world is not an exact copy of what is out there Sensory interaction: • One sensory system affects another • Examples: smell of foods influences taste Parallel processing: • Simultaneous/concurrent processing of multiple info steams by the brain • Brain engages in multiple subtasks at the same time Synesthesia • Rare, people experience cross modal sensation (cross senses) • Stimulation of one sense results in the automatic activation of another • Many different types of this o Most common is associated with colors, letters, or numbers Blind sight: • Above chance visual performance of cortically blind individuals with damage to area V1 (primary visual cortex) How to pinpoint sounds: • Two ears are better than 1 • Ear closest to the sound will receive input that is more intense and perceived slightly sooner Benefits of pain: • Alerts danger • Biological experience of pain: o Activity in spinal cord’s large and small fibers o Genetic difference in endorphin production o Brain’s interpretation of CNS activity • Social/Cultural experience of pain: o Presence of others o Empathy for others o Cultural expectations • Psychological experience of pain: o Attention to pain o Learning based on experience o Expectations Perceptual organization: • How we organize/interpret our sensations so that they become meaningful • Perceptual set: o Mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not the other o Context effect: a given stimulus may trigger different perceptions based on context • Perceptual constancies o Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change ▪ Vital “Top Down” process ▪ Allows us to flexibly navigate our world and rely on object recognition at the same time • Shape constancy: o We perceive a door as a door whether it appears as a rectangle or a trapezoid • Size constancy: o We perceive objects as the same size no matter how far away they are form us o Expanding/shrinking objects are approaching/retreating/not changing sizes o Perceived lightness relies on relative luminance o Color perception depends on context-grey can look like a color depending on surrounding colors • Gestalt Principles: o Gestalt=form o Our brain does more than register info about our world o We perceive objects as wholes within their overall context o Closure: a perceptual experience may be more than the sum of its sensory
More Less

Related notes for PSY 2012

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.