[HIST 099] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (18 pages long)

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HIST 099
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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You normally look at 15th-18th century France from the top down, but we look from bottom up.
This helps understand how the system actually worked.
Brittany had a tax system where the noblemen would ask for money.
The nobles got their income from the peasants who worked on their land, piad rent, etc. for
the most part, not all.
You are not in favor of high taxes as a nobleman because then you lose money from the
peasants.
So you get money from the merchants, who live in towns/urban centers.
How do you tax that? Tax goods/imported goods, necessary goods. Tax objects people need
every day.
But see if you tax bread, people get mad and you have revolutions and things.
The price of bread reached an all-time high on Bastille day.
What other items were commonly consumed in Brittany?
Wine—taed highl i Frae, eather i Britta did’t let the gro it aore
Saltproduced in Brittany, not taxable massive salt monopoly in France not
enforceable in Brittany
Louis 14 was convinced this was the cause of the urban revolt.
If ou produe soethig, ou a’t ta it i Frae.
“o hat’s happeig? The kig is akig deals ith the elites that the get hat the at ad
he gets what he wants—that’s ho the sste works.
Whe ould a sste like that ot ork he it’s foused o oe persothe king.
king asks for too much
peasants refuse to payviolent or passive resistance
Our system has 3-5% income tax on the bottom 50%-- so does the French system! The poor
do’t pa eause the a’t, so ou hae to tr to get their oe idiretl.
What’s the easiest a to ta the poor? “ales ta.
Why does everyone choose salt for a state monopoly? Commonality of systems here! The
Aztecs did it too.
This tells ou that salt is a eessar produt. We’re trig to figure out ho the politial
system works.
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So why is the French political system weak in 1648?
Louis XIV was 10 years old, so somebody else had to run the political system. His mother was
ruig the sste ad so as her hief adisor. The prole here as that the’re both
foreigners—she’s “paish.
There was a lot of anti-Italian feeling in the 16th century in France and part of that was that the
Quee’s o as Italia, % of the ishops, ad the gus ruig the ta far ere Italia
all three of those groups were very unpopular so there was a strong anti-Italian wave in France
at the time, which switches to an anti-Spanish feeling in the 17th etur eause the’e ee
at war since 1635.
There ere er strog suspiios agaist Louis’s mother because she was Spanish.
& she as a oa, ad the did’t thik a oa should e i harge of the outr.
A woman could e reget of Frae ut ot Quee of Frae. It as also ad aers to
attack a woman so they went after her advisorMezzeran? (sp)
At the center of this highly personalized political system, we have a child.
At this time, the King of England (Charles I) was executed. they abolished the English monarchy
and established the commonwealth until his son Charles II came back.
Charles I as Louis XIV’s ule—not blood but married to his aunt. Charles II comes back to
poer i 66 ad he’s Louis’s st cousin.
So the revolutionaries in France are looking around and seeing actual revolution!
Catalonia broke off here toothis is a moment of incredible instability in Europe. The French
elites are lookig at hat’s goig o i their outr ad also seeing these revolutions and
things going on around them.
The elites at roal poer tepered ut o the other had, the do’t at the aarh that
they think England is having. WHAT THE HELL THERE IS DEMOCRACY! UNIVERSAL MANHOD
“UFFRAGE! There’s ee a small group that believe women should be allowed to vote!
A book was published in France at this time arguing the equality of the two sexes!
It was a best-seller in England during this time. It argued that people were human because they
could think and reason, so therefore women were human and capable of reason. Therefore
they should be allowed to vote!
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