BIOL 301 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Hiv, Cd4, Virus

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20 Nov 2018
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BIOL 301
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Lecture 1 Notes
Discovery and Origin of HIV/AIDS
AIDS: A Global Pandemic: The first plague in the era of globalization
i. This year is the 37th anniversary since the first reported case of AIDS
ii. Since 1981 (first case reported in California), and by the end of 2017, about 77 million
people have been infected with HIV, of which 35 million will have died by the end of
2016 this number will keep on increasing
a. Surpassed black plague, surpassed the flu; will go down in history as one of the
worst pandemics; HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis are the top three worst
iii. Today, 37 million people are infected worldwide
a. 17.1 million do not know they are infected
People are ueduated, syptos a reai hidde, people do’t get
tested
iv. Nearly 5,000 new infections occur worldwide every day, with about 1.8 million new
infections reported in 2017 and 900,000 deaths from AIDS in 2017
v. 50-52% of infections today are in women
A Global Pandemic cont.
i. In the USA, there are about 1.1 million people infected with the 10th largest HIV
population in the world; half are African America, 2% of Washington D. C’s population
are HIV positive
ii. 65% of all infected individuals live in Sub Saharan Africa
a. Many still have no access to anti-viral drugs
iii. The possibility of an effective vaccine is still many years away
a. The best way to prevent a disease is to get a vaccine
iv. The hope is to ed AID“ epidei y 00 aye too hopeful…
Some Great Achievements 2010-2017
1. Mother to child transmission lowered from 25%-30% down to 1%
2. In 1980s, an adult diagnosed with AIDS lived less than a year. Today a person diagnosed with
HIV can live up to age 70 with early diagnosis and medications; HIV is no longer a death
sentence
3. Studies show that the use of ART (antiretroviral medication [they inhibit the replication of
the virus]) in non-infected individuals can reduce transmission of HIV in MSM (men having
sex with men)
4. ART can reduce transmission between couples (one being HIV negative, and one is HIV
positive, by 96%
5. Prevention, care, and the use of medications has lowered death rate by 20% in the last five
years
6. Number of new infections globally decreased by 20%, but NOT everywhere
i. Some places are increasing at an alarming rate; fear that it will spread into other
areas; Russia has an exponential increase, same with Eastern Europe, Ukraine
ii. Recently, there is an increase in Miami
7. In 2017, 21.7 million people have access to life saving ART (antiretroviral treatment)
8. Travel bans on people with HIV travelling into the USA have been lifted (in 2009)
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9. Federal funding is starting to move away from abstinence only programs in school
10. A promising microbicidal vaginal gel can reduce HIV and HSC-2 infection in women by 34%
(CAPRISA 004 study)
AIDS facts
i. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
a. Acquired because people ho ere’t or ith the irus ad had o other fators
to get it, were being exposed to something in the environment and thus it was
acquired
ii. When first observed, this disease was neither congenital nor inherited so it appeared to
be acquired
iii. Today we know that it is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV
(discovered in 1983)
iv. The initial observations of individuals that were presented with this syndrome showed
that all of the patients had damaged or deficient immune systems, which was
unprecedented
v. AIDS is not the fourth leading cause of death in the world and in Africa it is the leading
cause
AIDS: a disease or a syndrome?
i. A disease is a pathological condition with a single identifiable cause
ii. AIDS patients may have many diseases; in fact, most AIDS patients have more than one
disease at any given time
iii. Collectively, the diseases that are expressed in an AIDS patient are referred to as a
syndrome
iv. Ho ay diseases ad ho seere it is depeds o the perso’s iue syste
When was AIDS first observed in US?
i. In 1981, Dr. Michael Gottlieb of UCLA reported a cluster of a rare kind of pneumonia
(PCP/fungal pneumonia) developing in young homosexual men (healthy, no prior
medical problems); these were the first ever reported and published cases
ii. Around the same time, another group of physicians in New York reported the
appearae of a ery rare type of aer aer of the oetie tissue; Kaposi’s
sarcoma [KS])
iii. All of the patients had a depressed immune system
iv. In 1982, cases of AIDS were reported in hemophiliacs, recipients of blood transfusions,
and injection drug users
v. First cases of AIDS were not in ay men! Five cases of extreme immunodeficiencies were
discovered between 1975-1981 in heterosexual women; the report was not published
until 1982
a. The first cases were the ones mentioned above in 1981, by Dr. Michael Gottlieb
First Reported Cases
i. One common factor was the exchange of body fluids among all these individuals; blood
or semen
ii. In 1983, the first cases appeared in women whose sexual partners were IV drug users
a. At this point, it was obvious that this was an agent that can transmitted from male
to female, as well as male to male
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