PSYC 313 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Ford Focus, Time, Socioeconomic Status

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PSYC 313
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1/24/18 - Chapter 1: Introduction
Why Study childhood development?
Raising children
Social policy
o Knowledge of child development helps us make informed decisions about social
policy that affect children
o Young children are often mislead by leading and repeating interview questions
o Realistic props used in testimonies DO NOT improve accuracy, blurs the line
between fantasy play and reality
Understanding Human Nature
o How are they developing?
o Observe, describe, and explain the process of development among diverse
populations
Historical Foundations
Plato
o Emphasized self-control and discipline
o Believed that children are born with innate knowledge
o Children are born with concepts
Aristotle
o Was concerned with fitting child rearing to the needs of the individual children
o Believed that knowledge comes from experience
o Beginning of the blank slate idea
John Locke
o Followed Aristotle's views
o Child is a tabula rasa (blank slate)
o Discipline before freedom
o Focus on development of character
Social reform movements
Industrial revolution (1700s - 1800s in the US and Europe)
Child laborers were common and had very little protections
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Late 1800s
Studied and documented his infant son
Beginnings
Child development emerged as a formal research area in the late 1800s early 1900s
Sigmund Freud
o Psychoanalysis
o Focus on biology
John Watson
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o Behaviorism
o Reward/punishment system
Themes of Childhood Development
1. Nature and Nurture
o Nurture: the environment, surroundings, parents, friends, peers, and society
o Nature: genes, hereditary information, genetic make-up, biological endowment
o Always in interaction between genes and the environment
2. The Active Child
o How to children shape their own development?
o Newborns
Prefer movement and sounds
Attention to faces
Relationship with mother strengthens
o Toddlers
Internally motivated to learn
Practice talking
Self-talk and crib speech
o Young Children
3. Continuity/Discontinuity
o Continuous: Gradual, slowly, skill by skill
o Discontinuous: sudden change, stage theories (DEVELOPMENT IS DISCONTINOUS)
o Changes will occur gradually in small increments
o Development occurs skill by skill and task by task
o Changes with age include occasional large shifts
o Qualitative differences occur
o Piaget, Freud, Erikson, and Kohlberg were stage theorists
o Example: Jean Piaget
Leading stage theorist in cognitive development
4 stages characterized by distinct abilities at each stage
Performance on the task below supports the discontinuous theory
Experiment with the glass of milk - taller glass has more at a younger age
Then it looks like all of a sudden they understand that the taller glass still has
the same because they watched it being poured
SUPPORTS DISCOUNTINOUS DEVELOPMENT THEORY
4. Mechanisms of Development
o How does change occur
o Effortful attention; voluntary control of ones emotions and thoughts
Various gene expression helps or hinders development
5. Sociocultural Content
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