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Final

HIST 1011 Final: HISTORY FINAL FULL STUDY GUIDE

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1011
Professor
Dane Kennedy
Semester
Spring

Description
Part 2: Eight of the following terms will appear on the exam. You will answer four of them. Be sure that your answers identify (where relevant) who, what, when, where, and historical significance. Total points: 20 (5 for each ID). Russo-Japanese War: Who: Russia and Japan What: • Japanese forces overran Russian forces over colonial ambitions in Korea • A war between Russia & Japan over imperial interests in Manchuria and Korea where Japan beat Russia When: 1904-1905 Where: Korea, Manchuria, Yellow Sea, Korean Peninsula Historical Significance: • Japan gained international recognition for establishing colonial authority over Korea and established Japan as a major imperial power. • Russia lost and was humiliated, their expansion was halted, and the monarchy was questioned. • The war established Japanese dominance. • Changed world view of Japan & Russia; • Put to use new technological weapons developed during the IR; • Disproved a racial hierarchy b/c Asians beat white people Gamal Abdel Nasser: Who: Prime minister of Egypt by way of military coup/ 2nd President of Egypt What: • Pan-arab nationalism; • Wanted to rule over the Arab world, • Nationalized the Suez Canal and wanted to destroy Israel. • He took control of Egypt by overthrowing the previous monarchy. • Opposed Israel, communists, and the Muslim Brotherhood. • Adopted a neutral foreign policy stance. • Worked to make Egypt the head of pan-Arab nationalism. When: 1918-1970 Where: Egypt Historical Significance: • Nasser enforced the socialist measures and modernization reforms and whose neutralist policies (non-alignment policies) during the Cold War led to tense relations with the Western power. • Caused tensions in the Cold War through his neutrality. • Made Egypt fully independent of British influence. • Revamped Egypt's economy through agrarian reform. • Rid the country of feudalistic influence; fostered cultural advancement Opium Wars: Who: British East India Company and China What: • The British used opium instead of bullion in China for luxury goods, thus creating an addiction in China and an economic problem. • The Chinese fought back and the British answered militarily When: 1839-1842 Where: China Historical Significance: • The Treaty of Nanking ended the war and favored the British. • It displayed the difference in military power between the British and the Chinese. • Destroyed Chinese control of the terms of trade with Europeans. • Allowed opium to again flood the Chinese markets. • Began the system of England curtailing Chinese sovereignty with the unequal treaties Taiping Rebellion: Who: Hong Xiuquan (leader) What: • Radical political and religious upheaval that was the costliest and most devastating civil war in China, and caused the death of 20-30 million people. • Civil war in southern China where millenarian Hong attempted to overthrow the government to establish a Christian one. • The rebel agenda included social reforms such as shared "property in common", equality for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism and Chinese folk religion with their form of Christianity When: 1850-1864 Where: China Historical Significance: • The radical nature of the Taiping Rebellion ensured the Chinese gentry would side with the Qing to keep order. • The Qing created regional armies staffed by Chinese not Manchus. These armies gradually overcame the Taiping with help from European aid. • The rebellion claimed almost 30 million lives and caused drastic declines in agricultural production. • The rebellion altered the course of Chinese history. • One of the deadliest military conflicts in history. • Inspired Chinese leaders Sun Yat-sen and Mao Zedong who glorified the Taiping rebels as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal monarchy Pax Britannica: Who: British What: • Draws on classical ideas, pax means peace. period of peace in Europe where England was the dominant country When: 1815-1914 Where: British Empire Historical Significance: • Pax Britannica was arguing the British brought with them legal order and economic free trade which was beneficial to everyone. • The British were trying to justify their actions by creating the largest colonial empire ever seen. • As long as they "brought" free trade and democracy, they could do as they please. because they were the first to industrialize. • England held immense power and influence over the world allowing them colonize and force both anglobalization (Britain's influence on the world and global trade) and a liberal ethos around the world. MAD: Who: US and USSR What: • Mutual assured destruction. • Mutually Assured Destruction; a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender. • It is based on the theory of deterrence where the threat of using strong weapons against the enemy prevents the enemy's use of those same weapons. • The strategy is a form of Nash equilibrium in which neither side, once armed, has any incentive to initiate a conflict or to disarm When: Cold War: 1947-1991 Where: US and USSR Historical Significance: • The use of atomic bombs would bring with it utter destruction. • Both sides understood on some level that the use of nuclear bombs would we global suicide and it would result in the loss of many lives, yet they continually built up their arsenals. • This doctrine deterred both sides from using their nuclear weapons for mass holocaust. • Helped avoid destroying many countries. • Imposed a tense but stable peace Gunboat diplomacy: Who: Governments in Europe When: 19th century (Age of Imperialism) Ex: Opium Wars (1839-1842) Where: Europe What: • British ships would bomb towns until they forced their way into trading with said port. • The pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of naval power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. • The term comes from the nineteenth-century period of imperialism, when European powers would intimidate other, less powerful states into granting concessions through a demonstration of their superior naval power Historical Significance: • This is historically significant because the British peer-pressured many countries into opening their ports to them unwillingly. • This led to the Big Stick ideology, in which superpowers would intimidate small states into opening their doors to trade. • This highlights the power and authority more powerful nations had to smaller weaker states. Benito Mussolini: Who: • Leader of Italy during WW2, • Friends with Hitler/ fascist dictator of Italy, journalist, and leader of the Nationalist Fascist Party What: • First propagated socialism but after WWI became very nationalistic and called for a strong political leader, took control of Italy in 1922 with a march on Rome using his "black shirts" and was appointed Prime Minister. • Created a fully fascist dictatorship When: 1883-1945 Where: Italy Historical Significance: • Italy was about to break into civil war when Mussolini's Black Shirt army marched on Rome, and the king asked Mussolini to become prime minister in 1922. • He was a factor in igniting WW2. • One of the key figures in creating fascism. • Destroyed all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes. • Consolidated power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. • Joined the Rome-Berlin Axis in WWII, Exiled thousands of Italians. Kew Gardens: Who: British What: • One of the most important botanical gardens in London; • Found the basis for the malaria drug, cinchona. • A botanical garden in England to study plants and nurture them, establish how they grow & their value, & try to ready them for commercial use. When: founded in 1759 Where: England Historical Significance: • Kew garden and botanical gardens serve as a practical economic sectors for Europeans as they move around the world. • This scientific research in Kew Garden helped the development of British imperialism. • Shows how interconnected the world has become, also less dependency on other countries for exports. • Undermined certain countries' forms of trade & economy such as rubber in South America and tea in China. Bolsheviks: Who: Radical Russians who came to power after the fall of the Romanov dynasty. Radical wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party; headed by Lenin. What: • Radical group of Russians. • A radical Marxist turned Leninist party in Russia that ousted the Provisional Government. • Major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism. • Considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. • Eventually became the Communist Party of Russia When: came to power in 1918 Where: Russia Historical Significance: • Bolshevik government pulled Russia out of the war by signing the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk with Germany, which gave Germany possession of the Baltic states and 1/4 of its population. • Lenin, a revolutionary Marxist, headed the Bolsheviks, the radical wing of the Russian Social-Democratic party. • Led the October Revolution to seize power. • Took Russia out of WWI through the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. • Led to the creation of the Soviet Union. • Turned Russia into a communist country Monoculture: Who: Europe & Neo-European colonies What: • Agricultural practice of growing a single crop or plant species in a field at a time. • The agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species in a field at a time. When: 1800s Where: Europe Historical Significance: • Monoculture lead to higher economic yield but also soil erosion. • This is an example of anthropocene. • It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for increased efficiencies in planting and harvest. • Continuous monoculture, where the same species is grown year after year, can lead to the quicker buildup of pests and diseases, and then rapid spread where a uniform crop is susceptible to a pathogen. Sun Yat-Sen: Who: Leader of the nationalist movement in China who became the first President of the Republic of China when it was founded in 1912 after the revolution What: • Principles of the people, which emphasizes nationalism, democracy and people's livelihoods as the 3 keys of a successful state, and for his plan for national reconstruction. • Head of the Nationalist People's Party who through his work in the 1911 revolution in China made China a Republic and abolished the dynasty; called for elimination of special privileges for foreigners, national reunification, economic development & a democratic republican government based off of universal suffrage; fostered nationalism in China When: early 1900s. 1866-1925 Where: China Historical Significance: • Sun Yat-Sen returned to power in 1923 and is known for unifying post-imperialist China and helping to free it from foreign powers. • Developed of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood. • Seen as the father of the Republic of China. • Formed an alliance between China & communism • Challenged and ousted the warlords who controlled much of China Anthropocene: Who: human/europeans What: dramatic reduction in biodiversity, high extinction rates, global warming starts at the beginning of Industrial Revolution ("ground zero"), extraction of raw materials from around the world When: 18th century Where: Everywhere Historical Significance: This is a direct consequence of human action. Vladimir Lenin: Who: • M arxist/communist revolutionary leader who led the Bolsheviks to overthrow the government and established the Soviet Union after the revolution. • Head of the Bolshevik Party; ruled Russia transforming it into the Soviet Union. • Russian communist revolutionary • What: • Took control of Russia in 1917 and ruled it in a Leninist communist political style. • Head of the Bolshevik Party and worked to rid Russia of any opposition including anti- Communists, the old royal family, and Mensheviks. • Instituted a New Economic Policy. • Annulled private property, and assumed control over privately held commercial properties What: established the USSR When: 1870-1924 Where: Russia Historical Significance: • Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP), a more capitalist-oriented economic policy, deemed necessary after the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, to foster the economy of the country, which was almost ruined. • Transformed Russia into a communist society; orchestrated the October Revolution • Nationalized the estates and crown lands • Legalized homosexuality and abortion; Lenin's Russia was the first country in the world to establish both of these rights. • Free access to both abortion and birth control; • No-fault divorce was also legalized, along with universal free healthcare and free education being established; got Russia out of WWI. • Started the process of industrialisation and recovery from the Civil War Pan-Slavism: Who: Slavs What: • The 19th century movement that emphasized the ethnic and cultural kinship of the Slavic peoples of eastern and east-central Europe • A movement which crystallised in the mid-19th century, stressed their ethnic & cultural kinship, and aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples in eastern and east central Europe politically influenced by nationalism and the French Revolution When: 19th century Where: Eastern Europe (Balkan region) Historical Significance: • Pan-Slavism worked to unite these people politically. • The Russians worked to promote the idea of pan-Slavism in Austria-Hungary in order to push secession of the different Slav people. • This would weaken the Austrian state and make it easier for Russia to annex the lands that the different Slavic groups occupied. • Russia's supported Serbia, the strongest and most nationalistic Slavic state, in order to achieve this goal. • This alliance and provocative policy of promoting pan-Slavism laid some of the framework for conflict that would lead to World War I. • Promoted secession by Slav areas; weakened Austrian territories readying them for later Russian annexation; helped to set off the domino effect of World War I. ‘new women’: Who: educated, upper class women from the US and Europe What: • was used to describe feminist, educated, independent career women in Europe and the United States. • A more active participant in life as a member of society and the workforce, she was most often depicted exerting her autonomy in the domestic and private spheres in literature, theatre, and other artistic representations. What: • A feminist ideal that influenced feminism by pushing the limits of a male dominated society. • Characterized these new women who exercised control over their own lives be it personal, social, or economic. When: late 19th century Where: USA and Europe Historical Significance: • "New Women" defied the ideology of separate spheres that distinguished the role of men and women, which women belong to the private sphere at home and men belong to public sphere outside. • Led to the 20th-century suffragette movement to gain women's democratic rights. • Caused education and employment opportunities to increase for women. • Women were winning the right to attend university or college. • The emergence of education and career opportunities for women in the late nineteenth century, as well as new legal rights to property (although not yet the vote), meant that they stepped into a new position of freedom and choice when it came to marital and sexual partners Karl Marx: Who: German socialist theorist who wrote the Communist Manifesto What: • Communist Manifesto; argued that after a revolt by the proletariat private property would be abolished and the capitalist order would be destroyed • Helped develop communist theory with Engels • Marx's theories about society, economics and politics—the collective understanding of which is known as Marxism—hold that human societies progress through class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed labouring class that provides the labour for production. States. • Marx believed, were run on behalf of the ruling class and in their interest while representing it as the common interest of all. • He predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. • He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power and eventually establish a classless society, communism, a society governed by a free association of producers When: 1818-1883 Where: Europe Historical Significance: • Marx believed that a socialist revolution would result in a dictatorship of the proletariat and abolish private property, resulting in a more egalitarian society. • Marx's work had great influence on socialist movements that arose throughout Europe, as well as on the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917. • His doctrines came to dominate European & international socialism. • His ideas helped fuel the Russian & Chinese Communist revolutions; work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought Mohandas Gandhi: Who: • Lawyer, nonviolent protester, political figure for peace, the preeminent leader of Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. • Lawyer & religious scholar • Considered the father of India What: • Fought for Indian independence from Britain. • Led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. • Embraced the moral philosophies of tolerance, nonviolence, and passive resistance. • Transformed the Indian National Congress into a mass organization to help Indian nationalism. • Fought to improve the status of the lowest class. • Helped launch the Non-Cooperation Movement & the Civil Disobedience Movement When: 1869-1948 Where: India Historical Significance: • Gandhi was inspirational architect of a form of nonviolent civil disobedience in Indian independence movement and helped transform Congress into a mass party in the 1920s, and was the conscience of the nationalist campaign until his assassination by a Hindu nationalist militant in January 1948. • He helped decrease the caste system. helped achieve Indian independence Indian Mutiny: Who: Indians and British East India Company What: Indians fought for sovereignty from the British; rebellion against the British East India Company When: 1857 Where: India, lynchpin of British influence in Asia Historical Significance: • The British made the argument that these people could not govern themselves and they had acquired these territories through conquest thus the people do not have legitimate claims to sovereignty. • This rebellion led to direct rule of India by England under Queen Victoria. Rape of Nanking: Who: Japanese soldiers; Chinese citizens What: • The Japanese slaughter 300,000 residents of Nanking, Japanese soldiers raped over 7,000 Chinese women, murdered hundreds of thousands Chinese civilians and soldiers, and burned down 1/3 of the homes in Nanking because of their inflamed passions and sense of racial superiority When: 1930s (Sino-Japanese War) Where: China Historical Significance: • Both Japan and China used the Rape of Nanking to define their national identity. • Because Japanese militarist strategy is to destroy the evidence of those killed, the true number killed in Nanking is unclear. • Denial of the massacre and revisionist accounts of the killings have become a staple of Japanese nationalism. • In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny outright that it happened. • Creates a barrier to the Chinese-Japanese relationship; displayed some of the horrors of WWII. Millenarianism: Who: religious figures What: • Belief in a coming era of peace and prosperity which exists in many cultures and religions. • Religious justification for violent acts/ claim by a religious figure/prophet who tries to inspire a population to become militant to get out of current situation & return to the golden age When: 19-20th century Where: everywhere Historical Significance: • Millenarianism was a claim made by some religious figure that tried to inspire a population to engage in militant action that would bring about the end of their suffering, create redemption, to return to some kind of golden age. • Led to the Indian Mutiny, Taiping Rebellion, and Boxer Rebellion Autarky: Who: world market leaders/ Ex: Nazi Germany & Mussolini Italy What: • Economic self-sufficiency/ the quality of being self-sufficient. • Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic systems. • Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade When: 1930s, Great Depression Where: Fascist/ highly nationalized states Historical Significance: • Autarky is not possible in a modernized world. • Industrialized economies required the use for outside markets to buy cheap goods and sell goods. • Autarky demands imperialism; another version of mercantilism. • This is the first time we see globalization retreat in modern capitalism/ proven to fail with Hitler and Mussolini. • Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler attempted to end international trade and considered economic self-sufficiency to be ideal. • However, tasked with establishing full autarky in Germany as part of the Four Year Plan, (beginning in 1936) Hermann Göring failed to close the German economy. • Italy, Benito Mussolini claimed to be an autarkist, especially after the 1935 invasion of Abyssinia and subsequent trade embargoes. • However, it still conducted trade with Germany and elsewhere Anglobalization: Who: British What: • Speaks to Britain's enormous influence around the world. • Largest migration ever/ British dominance When: 1850s-1900s Where: British Empire Historical Significance: • At the time, Britain was interested in opening markets wherever it could. • They preferred not to use force, but were not opposed to it, hence their use of gun diplomacy. • In many ways they were constructing the modern world. • They brought with them infrastructure, communications, migration, culture, and capital.led to British dominance in the fields of infrastructure, communication & transportation, migration, global capital market, and global culture. • England became the center of trade and culture. • Leads to the development of the modern global economies Blitzkrieg: Who: Nazi Germans What: • Lightning war Method of warfare whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armored and motorized or mechanized infantry formations, and heavily backed up by close air support, forces a breakthrough into the enemy's line of defense through a series of short, fast, powerful attacks. • And once in the enemy's territory, proceeds to dislocate them using speed and surprise, a
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