Part 2: Eight of the following terms will appear on the exam. You will answer four of
them. Be sure that your answers identify (where relevant) who, what, when, where, and
historical significance. Total points: 20 (5 for each ID).
Who: Russia and Japan
• Japanese forces overran Russian forces over colonial ambitions in Korea
• A war between Russia & Japan over imperial interests in Manchuria and Korea where
Japan beat Russia
Where: Korea, Manchuria, Yellow Sea, Korean Peninsula
• Japan gained international recognition for establishing colonial authority over Korea and
established Japan as a major imperial power.
• Russia lost and was humiliated, their expansion was halted, and the monarchy was
• The war established Japanese dominance.
• Changed world view of Japan & Russia;
• Put to use new technological weapons developed during the IR;
• Disproved a racial hierarchy b/c Asians beat white people
Gamal Abdel Nasser:
Who: Prime minister of Egypt by way of military coup/ 2nd President of Egypt
• Pan-arab nationalism;
• Wanted to rule over the Arab world,
• Nationalized the Suez Canal and wanted to destroy Israel.
• He took control of Egypt by overthrowing the previous monarchy.
• Opposed Israel, communists, and the Muslim Brotherhood.
• Adopted a neutral foreign policy stance.
• Worked to make Egypt the head of pan-Arab nationalism.
• Nasser enforced the socialist measures and modernization reforms and whose neutralist
policies (non-alignment policies) during the Cold War led to tense relations with the
• Caused tensions in the Cold War through his neutrality.
• Made Egypt fully independent of British influence.
• Revamped Egypt's economy through agrarian reform.
• Rid the country of feudalistic influence; fostered cultural advancement Opium Wars:
Who: British East India Company and China
• The British used opium instead of bullion in China for luxury goods, thus creating an
addiction in China and an economic problem.
• The Chinese fought back and the British answered militarily
• The Treaty of Nanking ended the war and favored the British.
• It displayed the difference in military power between the British and the Chinese.
• Destroyed Chinese control of the terms of trade with Europeans.
• Allowed opium to again flood the Chinese markets.
• Began the system of England curtailing Chinese sovereignty with the unequal treaties
Who: Hong Xiuquan (leader)
• Radical political and religious upheaval that was the costliest and most devastating civil
war in China, and caused the death of 20-30 million people.
• Civil war in southern China where millenarian Hong attempted to overthrow the
government to establish a Christian one.
• The rebel agenda included social reforms such as shared "property in common", equality
for women, and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism and Chinese folk
religion with their form of Christianity
• The radical nature of the Taiping Rebellion ensured the Chinese gentry would side with
the Qing to keep order.
• The Qing created regional armies staffed by Chinese not Manchus. These armies
gradually overcame the Taiping with help from European aid.
• The rebellion claimed almost 30 million lives and caused drastic declines in agricultural
• The rebellion altered the course of Chinese history.
• One of the deadliest military conflicts in history.
• Inspired Chinese leaders Sun Yat-sen and Mao Zedong who glorified the Taiping rebels
as early heroic revolutionaries against a corrupt feudal monarchy Pax Britannica:
• Draws on classical ideas, pax means peace. period of peace in Europe where England was
the dominant country
Where: British Empire
• Pax Britannica was arguing the British brought with them legal order and economic free
trade which was beneficial to everyone.
• The British were trying to justify their actions by creating the largest colonial empire ever
• As long as they "brought" free trade and democracy, they could do as they please.
because they were the first to industrialize.
• England held immense power and influence over the world allowing them colonize and
force both anglobalization (Britain's influence on the world and global trade) and a liberal
ethos around the world.
Who: US and USSR
• Mutual assured destruction.
• Mutually Assured Destruction; a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy
in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two or more
opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the
• It is based on the theory of deterrence where the threat of using strong weapons against
the enemy prevents the enemy's use of those same weapons.
• The strategy is a form of Nash equilibrium in which neither side, once armed, has any
incentive to initiate a conflict or to disarm
When: Cold War: 1947-1991
Where: US and USSR
• The use of atomic bombs would bring with it utter destruction.
• Both sides understood on some level that the use of nuclear bombs would we global
suicide and it would result in the loss of many lives, yet they continually built up their
• This doctrine deterred both sides from using their nuclear weapons for mass holocaust.
• Helped avoid destroying many countries.
• Imposed a tense but stable peace Gunboat diplomacy:
Who: Governments in Europe
When: 19th century (Age of Imperialism) Ex: Opium Wars (1839-1842)
• British ships would bomb towns until they forced their way into trading with said port.
• The pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of naval power—implying or
constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
• The term comes from the nineteenth-century period of imperialism, when European
powers would intimidate other, less powerful states into granting concessions through a
demonstration of their superior naval power
• This is historically significant because the British peer-pressured many countries into
opening their ports to them unwillingly.
• This led to the Big Stick ideology, in which superpowers would intimidate small states
into opening their doors to trade.
• This highlights the power and authority more powerful nations had to smaller weaker
• Leader of Italy during WW2,
• Friends with Hitler/ fascist dictator of Italy, journalist, and leader of the Nationalist Fascist Party
• First propagated socialism but after WWI became very nationalistic and called for a
strong political leader, took control of Italy in 1922 with a march on Rome using his
"black shirts" and was appointed Prime Minister.
• Created a fully fascist dictatorship
• Italy was about to break into civil war when Mussolini's Black Shirt army marched on
Rome, and the king asked Mussolini to become prime minister in 1922.
• He was a factor in igniting WW2.
• One of the key figures in creating fascism.
• Destroyed all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes.
• Consolidated power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party
• Joined the Rome-Berlin Axis in WWII, Exiled thousands of Italians.
• One of the most important botanical gardens in London;
• Found the basis for the malaria drug, cinchona. • A botanical garden in England to study plants and nurture them, establish how they grow
& their value, & try to ready them for commercial use.
When: founded in 1759
• Kew garden and botanical gardens serve as a practical economic sectors for Europeans as
they move around the world.
• This scientific research in Kew Garden helped the development of British imperialism.
• Shows how interconnected the world has become, also less dependency on other
countries for exports.
• Undermined certain countries' forms of trade & economy such as rubber in South
America and tea in China.
Who: Radical Russians who came to power after the fall of the Romanov dynasty. Radical wing
of the Russian Social Democratic Party; headed by Lenin.
• Radical group of Russians.
• A radical Marxist turned Leninist party in Russia that ousted the Provisional
• Major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy
governed by the principle of democratic centralism.
• Considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia.
• Eventually became the Communist Party of Russia
When: came to power in 1918
• Bolshevik government pulled Russia out of the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk with Germany, which gave Germany possession of the Baltic states and 1/4 of its
• Lenin, a revolutionary Marxist, headed the Bolsheviks, the radical wing of the Russian
• Led the October Revolution to seize power.
• Took Russia out of WWI through the treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
• Led to the creation of the Soviet Union.
• Turned Russia into a communist country Monoculture:
Who: Europe & Neo-European colonies
• Agricultural practice of growing a single crop or plant species in a field at a time.
• The agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species in a field
at a time.
• Monoculture lead to higher economic yield but also soil erosion.
• This is an example of anthropocene.
• It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for
increased efficiencies in planting and harvest.
• Continuous monoculture, where the same species is grown year after year, can lead to the
quicker buildup of pests and diseases, and then rapid spread where a uniform crop is
susceptible to a pathogen.
Who: Leader of the nationalist movement in China who became the first President of the
Republic of China when it was founded in 1912 after the revolution
• Principles of the people, which emphasizes nationalism, democracy and people's
livelihoods as the 3 keys of a successful state, and for his plan for national
• Head of the Nationalist People's Party who through his work in the 1911
revolution in China made China a Republic and abolished the dynasty; called for
elimination of special privileges for foreigners, national reunification, economic
development & a democratic republican government based off of universal
suffrage; fostered nationalism in China
When: early 1900s. 1866-1925
• Sun Yat-Sen returned to power in 1923 and is known for unifying post-imperialist China
and helping to free it from foreign powers.
• Developed of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People:
nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood.
• Seen as the father of the Republic of China.
• Formed an alliance between China & communism
• Challenged and ousted the warlords who controlled much of China Anthropocene:
What: dramatic reduction in biodiversity, high extinction rates, global warming starts at the
beginning of Industrial Revolution ("ground zero"), extraction of raw materials from around the
When: 18th century
Historical Significance: This is a direct consequence of human action.
• M arxist/communist revolutionary leader who led the Bolsheviks to overthrow the
government and established the Soviet Union after the revolution.
• Head of the Bolshevik Party; ruled Russia transforming it into the Soviet Union.
• Russian communist revolutionary
• Took control of Russia in 1917 and ruled it in a Leninist communist political style.
• Head of the Bolshevik Party and worked to rid Russia of any opposition including anti-
Communists, the old royal family, and Mensheviks.
• Instituted a New Economic Policy.
• Annulled private property, and assumed control over privately held commercial
What: established the USSR
• Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP), a more capitalist-oriented economic
policy, deemed necessary after the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1922, to foster the
economy of the country, which was almost ruined.
• Transformed Russia into a communist society; orchestrated the October Revolution
• Nationalized the estates and crown lands
• Legalized homosexuality and abortion; Lenin's Russia was the first country in the world
to establish both of these rights.
• Free access to both abortion and birth control;
• No-fault divorce was also legalized, along with universal free healthcare and free
education being established; got Russia out of WWI.
• Started the process of industrialisation and recovery from the Civil War Pan-Slavism:
• The 19th century movement that emphasized the ethnic and cultural kinship of the Slavic
peoples of eastern and east-central Europe
• A movement which crystallised in the mid-19th century, stressed their ethnic & cultural
kinship, and aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples in eastern and east central Europe
politically influenced by nationalism and the French Revolution
When: 19th century
Where: Eastern Europe (Balkan region)
• Pan-Slavism worked to unite these people politically.
• The Russians worked to promote the idea of pan-Slavism in Austria-Hungary in order to
push secession of the different Slav people.
• This would weaken the Austrian state and make it easier for Russia to annex the lands
that the different Slavic groups occupied.
• Russia's supported Serbia, the strongest and most nationalistic Slavic state, in order to
achieve this goal.
• This alliance and provocative policy of promoting pan-Slavism laid some of the
framework for conflict that would lead to World War I.
• Promoted secession by Slav areas; weakened Austrian territories readying them for later
Russian annexation; helped to set off the domino effect of World War I.
Who: educated, upper class women from the US and Europe
• was used to describe feminist, educated, independent career women in Europe and the
• A more active participant in life as a member of society and the workforce, she was most
often depicted exerting her autonomy in the domestic and private spheres in literature,
theatre, and other artistic representations.
• A feminist ideal that influenced feminism by pushing the limits of a male dominated
• Characterized these new women who exercised control over their own lives be it
personal, social, or economic.
When: late 19th century
Where: USA and Europe
• "New Women" defied the ideology of separate spheres that distinguished the role of men
and women, which women belong to the private sphere at home and men belong to public
• Led to the 20th-century suffragette movement to gain women's democratic rights.
• Caused education and employment opportunities to increase for women.
• Women were winning the right to attend university or college. • The emergence of education and career opportunities for women in the late nineteenth
century, as well as new legal rights to property (although not yet the vote), meant that
they stepped into a new position of freedom and choice when it came to marital and
Who: German socialist theorist who wrote the Communist Manifesto
• Communist Manifesto; argued that after a revolt by the proletariat private property would
be abolished and the capitalist order would be destroyed
• Helped develop communist theory with Engels
• Marx's theories about society, economics and politics—the collective understanding of
which is known as Marxism—hold that human societies progress through class struggle:
a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed
labouring class that provides the labour for production. States.
• Marx believed, were run on behalf of the ruling class and in their interest while
representing it as the common interest of all.
• He predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal
tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system:
• He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and
proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power and
eventually establish a classless society, communism, a society governed by a free
association of producers
• Marx believed that a socialist revolution would result in a dictatorship of the proletariat
and abolish private property, resulting in a more egalitarian society.
• Marx's work had great influence on socialist movements that arose throughout Europe, as
well as on the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917.
• His doctrines came to dominate European & international socialism.
• His ideas helped fuel the Russian & Chinese Communist revolutions; work in economics
laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital,
and subsequent economic thought Mohandas Gandhi:
• Lawyer, nonviolent protester, political figure for peace, the preeminent leader of Indian
independence movement in British-ruled India.
• Lawyer & religious scholar
• Considered the father of India
• Fought for Indian independence from Britain.
• Led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across
• Embraced the moral philosophies of tolerance, nonviolence, and passive resistance.
• Transformed the Indian National Congress into a mass organization to help Indian
• Fought to improve the status of the lowest class.
• Helped launch the Non-Cooperation Movement & the Civil Disobedience Movement
• Gandhi was inspirational architect of a form of nonviolent civil disobedience in Indian
independence movement and helped transform Congress into a mass party in the 1920s,
and was the conscience of the nationalist campaign until his assassination by a Hindu
nationalist militant in January 1948.
• He helped decrease the caste system. helped achieve Indian independence
Who: Indians and British East India Company
What: Indians fought for sovereignty from the British; rebellion against the British East India
Where: India, lynchpin of British influence in Asia
• The British made the argument that these people could not govern themselves and they
had acquired these territories through conquest thus the people do not have legitimate
claims to sovereignty.
• This rebellion led to direct rule of India by England under Queen Victoria. Rape of Nanking:
Who: Japanese soldiers; Chinese citizens
• The Japanese slaughter 300,000 residents of Nanking, Japanese soldiers raped over 7,000
Chinese women, murdered hundreds of thousands Chinese civilians and soldiers, and
burned down 1/3 of the homes in Nanking because of their inflamed passions and sense
of racial superiority
When: 1930s (Sino-Japanese War)
• Both Japan and China used the Rape of Nanking to define their national identity.
• Because Japanese militarist strategy is to destroy the evidence of those killed, the true
number killed in Nanking is unclear.
• Denial of the massacre and revisionist accounts of the killings have become a staple of
• In Japan, public opinion of the massacres varies, and few deny outright that it happened.
• Creates a barrier to the Chinese-Japanese relationship; displayed some of the horrors of
Who: religious figures
• Belief in a coming era of peace and prosperity which exists in many cultures and
• Religious justification for violent acts/ claim by a religious figure/prophet who tries to
inspire a population to become militant to get out of current situation & return to the
When: 19-20th century
• Millenarianism was a claim made by some religious figure that tried to inspire a
population to engage in militant action that would bring about the end of their suffering,
create redemption, to return to some kind of golden age.
• Led to the Indian Mutiny, Taiping Rebellion, and Boxer Rebellion Autarky:
Who: world market leaders/ Ex: Nazi Germany & Mussolini Italy
• Economic self-sufficiency/ the quality of being self-sufficient.
• Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic systems.
• Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external
assistance or international trade
When: 1930s, Great Depression
Where: Fascist/ highly nationalized states
• Autarky is not possible in a modernized world.
• Industrialized economies required the use for outside markets to buy cheap goods and sell
• Autarky demands imperialism; another version of mercantilism.
• This is the first time we see globalization retreat in modern capitalism/ proven to fail with
Hitler and Mussolini.
• Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler attempted to end international trade and considered
economic self-sufficiency to be ideal.
• However, tasked with establishing full autarky in Germany as part of the Four Year Plan,
(beginning in 1936) Hermann Göring failed to close the German economy.
• Italy, Benito Mussolini claimed to be an autarkist, especially after the 1935 invasion of
Abyssinia and subsequent trade embargoes.
• However, it still conducted trade with Germany and elsewhere
• Speaks to Britain's enormous influence around the world.
• Largest migration ever/ British dominance
Where: British Empire
• At the time, Britain was interested in opening markets wherever it could.
• They preferred not to use force, but were not opposed to it, hence their use of gun
• In many ways they were constructing the modern world.
• They brought with them infrastructure, communications, migration, culture, and
capital.led to British dominance in the fields of infrastructure, communication &
transportation, migration, global capital market, and global culture.
• England became the center of trade and culture.
• Leads to the development of the modern global economies Blitzkrieg:
Who: Nazi Germans
• Lightning war Method of warfare whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense
concentration of armored and motorized or mechanized infantry formations, and heavily
backed up by close air support, forces a breakthrough into the enemy's line of defense
through a series of short, fast, powerful attacks.
• And once in the enemy's territory, proceeds to dislocate them using speed and surprise,