Ethical Reasoning 18 Final Review

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Department
General Education
Course
General Education Ethical Reasoning 18
Professor
Michael Puett
Semester
Fall

Description
Ethical
Reasoning
18
Final
Exam
Study
Guide
 12/12/2010
 
 
 
 Table
of
Contents:
 
 Confucius
(Kongzi)..........................................................................................................
2
 Mozi……………......................................................................................................……….…
4
 Mencius
(Mengzi)….......................................................................................................
10
 Laozi….................................................................................................................................
13
 Inward
Training…..........................................................................................................
18
 Zhuangzi….........................................................................................................................
23
 Lord
Shang…....................................................................................................................
26
 Xunzi…................................................................................................................................
31
 Han
Feizi…........................................................................................................................
36
 Sima
Qian…........................................................................................................................38
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1
 The
Analects
–
Kongzi
(Confucius)

 David
“Double‐D
aka
The
Master”
Lopez‐Lengowski
 

 
 Our
lives
are
governed
by
many
rituals
(hellos
and
goodbyes,
for
example)
so
 why
not
start
there
with
a
philosophy?
Rituals
train
us
to
become
better
people,
 train
our
dispositions
and
our
sensibilities,
through
this,
we
realize
how
our
actions
 can
have
a
profound
impact
on
others.
Rituals
extend
beyond
just
doing
the
actions,
 you
have
to
put
sincerity
and
feeling
into
them.
“Single
thread”
of
Confucius’
 teachings
are
dutifulness
(rituals)
tempered
by
sympathetic
understanding
(how
to
 act
and
use
your
knowledge
effectively
in
the
world).

 
 
 On
human
nature:
Never
clearly
stated
(to
the
best
of
my
knowledge),
although
I
 would
argue
he
thinks
human
nature
is
bad,
and
hence
must
be
cultivated
by
rituals.
 Page
48:
17.2
The
Master
said,
“By
nature
people
are
similar;
they
diverge
as
the
 result
of
practice.”

 
 On
government:
Doesn’t
speak
about
government.
Although
given
his
brief
 involvement
with
government,
it
would
seem
he
thinks
it
should
be
moral,
should
 actively
try
to
make
society
a
better
place.
Should
be
meritocratic
based
on
how
well
 you
can
follow
rituals,
sense
situations,
etc.
“Guide
[the
common
people]
using
 virtue,
and
keep
them
in
line
by
means
of
ritual”
(5).
Anti‐punishment.
 
 On
cosmology:

Confucius
would
say
that
it
is
impossible
to
be
certain
of
such
things
 as
an
afterlife,
and
thus
it
is
pointless
to
ponder
it.
He
does
mention
Heaven,
but
not
 as
a
grand
designer
of
schemes.
Good
people
are
not
always
rewarded.
There
is
no
 grand
purpose
behind
everything.
Does
believe
in
notion
of
mandate
of
Heaven.
 Heaven
is
more
like
the
life‐force
of
the
universe.
See
quote
17.19
below.

 
 On
morality,
education,
ritual:

Ritual
is
everything,
morality
is
extremely
important.
 You
become
better
through
your
daily
efforts
of
following
rituals,
sensing
situations,
 etc.
Masters,
such
as
Confucius,
teach
disciples.

 
 Self‐cultivation:

See
above,
it
is
literally
everything.
Institutions
play
no
role
in
 personal
self‐cultivation.
Achieved
via
rituals.

 
 
 School
of
thought:
Confucian.
 
 Writing
style:
Somewhat
“Pithy
sayings”.
Organized
into
short
anecdotes
about
 something
Confucius
(or
one
of
his
disciples)
said
or
did.
Puett
describes
this
work
 as
“powerful,
moving…very
well
written
work,
has
a
rhythm
that
is
akin
to
poetry.”

 
 
 
 
 2
 Important
quotes:


 
 Page
31:
11.22
…Zihua
inquired,
“When
Zilu
asked
you
whether
or
not
one
should
 immediately
take
care
of
something
upon
learning
of
it,
you
told
him
one
should
not,
 as
long
as
one’s
father
and
elder
brothers
were
still
alive.
When
Ran
Qui
asked
the
 same
question,
however,
you
told
him
that
one
should
immediately
care
of
it.
I
am
 confused,
and
humbly
ask
to
have
this
explained
to
me.”

 
 The
Master
said,
“Ran
Qui
is
overly
cautious,
and
so
I
wished
to
urge
him
on.
 Zilu,
on
the
other
hand,
is
too
impetuous,
and
so
I
sought
to
hold
him
back.”

 
 Page
29:
10.17
One
day
the
stables
burned.
When
the
Master
returned
from
court,
 he
asked,
“Was
anyone
hurt?”
He
did
not
ask
about
the
horses.


 
 Page
18:
6.17
The
Master
said,
“Who
is
able
to
leave
a
room
without
going
out
 through
the
door?
How
is
it,
then,
that
no
one
follows
this
Way?”
 
 Page
19:
6.23
The
Master
said,
“The
wise
take
joy
in
rivers,
while
the
Good
take
joy
 in
mountains.
The
wise
are
active,
while
the
Good
are
still.
The
wise
are
joyful,
while
 the
Good
are
long
lived.”

 
 Page
13:
4.22
The
Master
said,
“People
in
ancient
times
were
not
eager
to
speak,
 because
they
would
be
ashamed
if
their
actions
did
not
measures
up
to
their
words.”
 
 Page
39:
13.18
The
Duke
of
She
said
to
Kongzi,
“Among
my
people
there
is
one
we
 called
‘Upright
Gong.’
When
his
father
stole
a
sheep,
he
reported
him
to
the
 authorities.”
 
 Kongzi
replied,
“Among
my
people,
those
who
we
consider
‘upright’
are
 different
from
this:
fathers
cover
up
for
their
sons,
and
sons
cover
up
for
their
 fathers.
‘Uprightness’
is
to
be
found
in
this.”
 
 Page
50:
17.19
The
Master
said,
“Would
that
I
did
not
have
to
speak!”

 
 Zigong
said,
“If
the
Master
did
not
speak,
then
how
would
we
little
ones
 receive
guidance
from
you?”
 
 The
Master
replied,
“What
does
Heaven
ever
say?
Yet
the
four
seasons
are
 put
in
motion
by
it,
and
the
myriad
creatures
receive
their
life
from
it.
What
does
 Heaven
ever
say?”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 3
 
 Mozi
 Ben
Naddaff‐Hafrey
 
 
 Mozi
is
perhaps
best
summarized
by
his
response
to
the
question
“how
can
 [impartiality]
possibly
be
applied:”
“If
it
could
not
be
applied
even
I
would
condemn
 it!”
(69).



Mozi
believes
in
an
applicable
philosophy
and,
in
many
ways,
he
 anticipates
the
Legalists
by
emphasizing
government’s
role
in
incentivizing
people
 to
act
properly.

He
believes
in
leading
by
historical
example,
frequently
invoking
 sages
and
past
rulers
as
a
means
of
convincing
people
that
his
principles
are
 practicable.

He
believes
that
partiality
is
one
of
the
fundamental
roots
of
societal
 wrongs,
and
that
impartiality
must
be
trained
into
a
society.

In
societies,
naturally
 elected
benevolent
rulers
(because
good
rulers
will
rise
to
power
naturally)
take
the
 mandate
of
heaven
and
pass
it
into
society
through
a
series
of
rewards
and
 punishments.

They
also
capitalize
on
the
natural
urge
of
their
followers
to
be
like
 their
rulers.

Society
lost
its
sense
of
right
and
wrong
after
the
sage
kings
died,
and
 Mozi
proposes
the
creation
of
ultimate,
unalterable
laws
of
conduct
that
will
keep
 society
in
line
with
heaven.
 
 
 On
human
nature:

 • “He
showed
little
interest
in
what
one
would
call
moral
psychology
and
 embraced
a
simple
and
highly
malleable
view
of
human
nature.”—Intro

 • Human
nature
can
be
molded
by
systems,
but
there
is
a
slight
hint
that
Mozi
 sees
human
nature
negatively.

Impartiality
seems
unnatural
to
many
who
 can’t
understand
caring
about
others
as
much
as
they
care
about
themselves.
 • Humans
have
a
hard
time
being
consistent
about
what
they
judge
to
be
right
 and
wrong
(can
identify
minor
indiscretions—killing
one
person
is
wrong— but
not
major
onesgoing
to
war
is
wrong).

Need
larger
systems
to
coach
 them.
 
 On
government:

 • He
led
an
“organized
utopian
movement
whose
members
engaged
in
direct
 social
action”
so
he
believes
in
a
strong
government.

Led
a
highly
organized
 state.

“His
ideal
state
is
highly
centralized,
orderly,
and
ideologically
unified”
 (intro).
 • People
want
to
win
the
favor
of
their
rulers,
and
will
act
as
they
desire.
 • States
function
because
they
honor
worthy
men
and
use
them
to
carry
out
 their
laws.

If
you
honor
worthy
men,
then
there
will
be
more
worthy
men
in
 your
statespeaks
to
the
idea
that
people
want
to
gain
government’s
praise.
 • Governments
function
on
meritocracies.
 • Government
is
the
unification
of
values,
norms
and
goals—antithesis
of
 Confucian
notion
of
individually
determined
models
for
behavior.

It
is
the
 unification
of
norms
that
leads
to
good
government,
and
good,
unified
 government
leads
to
good
behavior.
 
 4
 • Imitative
relationship
between
people
and
ruler.
 • Superior
people
are
naturally
elected
to
government
 • Example
of
government
that
encouraged
people
to
eat
only
one
meal
a
day
 because
the
king
liked
thin
waists.

People
changed
their
food
intake
because
 they
wanted
to
obey
leaders.

The
passages
with
similar
examples
end
with
 the
line
“within
a
single
generation
the
people
changed
because
they
wanted
 to
accord
with
the
wishes
of
their
superior”
(76)
 • Force
is
the
wrong
way
to
govern.

Rulers
aren’t
kind,
subordinates
aren’t
 loyal,
it
goes
down
through
society
and
ruins
everything.
 
 On
cosmology:


 • Heaven
plays
a
strong
role
in
Mozi’s
philosophy
and
its
power
is
manifest
in
 the
ruler
and
passed
through
society
by
him
and
the
laws
he
implements
 • Heaven,
ghosts
and
spirits
hand
down
rewards
and
punishments
(as
does
the
 state)
that
encourage
good
behavior
 • If
ghosts
feel
dishonored
(lack
of
proper
sacrifices),
they
can
decide
to
punish
 the
people.
 
 On
morality,
education,
ritual:
 • Good
people
promote
the
greater
good
 • Partiality
is
an
immoral
characteristic
and
it
is
the
root
of
all
the
ills
of
 society.
 • Ritual:
Rituals
are
evaluated
by
current
practicality.

He
spends
a
chapter
 considering
the
ritual
of
having
lavish
funerals
and
drawn
out
mourning
 periods,
ultimately
questioning
whether
funerals
“enrich
the
poor,
increase
 the
population,
bring
stability
to
precarious
situations
and
order
to
chaos”
 (81)
 • Observation
of
rituals
like
funerals
just
leads
people
to
stray
from
doing
 things
like
offering
ghosts
the
proper
sacrifices.
 • He
even
criticizes
people
who
follow
the
old
funeral
rituals
as
“following
 what
they
are
used
to
and
approving
of
what
is
customary”
(88)
 
 Self‐cultivation:


 • Because
he
views
human
nature
as
very
simple,
he
doesn’t
care
about
self‐ cultivation.


 • Deep
convictions
can
change
instantly.

Humans
can
be
forced
to
appropriate
 any
sort
of
behavior.

People
respond
to
incentives.

Basically
the
Adam
Smith
 of
China
(Adamzi?)
 • People
change
their
behavior
because
the
government
compels
them
to
do
 so,
not
because
they’re
on
a
personal
quest
for
improvement.
 • Thinks
music
is
not
a
worthy
pursuit.

They
don’t
“promote
the
benefit
of
the
 people
in
the
world
today”

Also
musical
instruments
cost
too
much
to
create.
 
 
 
 
 5
 School
of
thought:
 • Unique,
but
the
best
way
to
situate
Mozi
within
the
course
is
to
view
him
as
 anti‐Confucian.


Anticipates
legalism.
 o Against
the
family‐based
ethical
and
political
system
of
Kongzi
 because
it
promotes
factionalism
as
opposed
to
a
unified
state.

Wants
 a
universal
love,
“impartial
care”
because
excessive
partiality
is
a
 central
ethical
problem.
 o “His
general
lack
of
appreciation
for
psychological
goods
and
the
need
 to
control
desires
and
shape
dispositions
and
attitudes
also
led
him
to
 reject
categorically
the
characteristic
Confucian
concern
with
culture
 and
ritual”
 
 Writing
style:


 • Based
on
logical
structures.
 • Organized
into
chapters
based
around
specific
subjects
from
which
Mozi
 extrapolates
grander
points
 • Each
section
begins
with
“Our
teacher
Mozi
says,”
 • Uses
rhetorical
questions
after
establishing
issues
to
prompt
logical
 discourse
on
issues.

Look
for
things
like
“What
is
the
reason
for
such
 success?”

or
just
a
general
“What
is
the
reason
for
this?”

Xunzi
also
does
this
 (and
maybe
other
philosophers,
too)
but
Mozi
relies
pretty
heavily
on
it.

A
 difference
is
that
Xunzi
sometimes
asks
his
questions
as
if
he
were
a
reader
 challenging
the
text
(“What
do
I
mean
by
x?”)
and
Mozi
uses
questions
as
a
 way
to
push
his
own
logic.
 • Very
wooden
and
clunky
writing
style.

Instead
of
loosely
flowing
into
his
 analogies,
Mozi
sometimes
introduces
them
as
“It
is
analogous
to”
 • He
sometimes
breaks
into
long
chains
of
societal
relations
to
show
how
 punishments
and
rewards
are
conserved
“so
x
helped
y,
etc.”
 • Uses
historical
examples
to
prove
applicability
of
his
ideas
or
to
establish
 ideal
models
 
 
 Important
quotes:


 
 • 
“Once
the
governors
and
leaders
were
in
place,
the
Son
of
Heaven
 announced
this
rule
to
the
people
of
the
world
saying,
‘Whenever
you
hear
of
 something
good
or
bad,
always
inform
your
superior.

Whenever
your
 superior
approves
of
something
as
right
you
too
must
approve
of
it.

 Whenever
your
superior
condemns
something
as
wrong
you
too
must
 condemn
it.

Should
a
superior
commit
any
transgression,
one
must
offer
 proper
remonstrance.

Should
your
subordinates
do
anything
good,
one
must
 widely
recommend
them.

To
obey
one’s
superior
and
to
avoid
joining
 together
with
those
in
subordinate
positions—such
conduct
will
be
 rewarded
by
superiors
and
praised
by
subordinates.

But
if
you
hear
of
 something
good
or
bad
and
fail
to
inform
your
superior,
if
you
are
not
able
to
 
 6
 approve
of
what
your
superior
approves
of
and
condemn
what
your
superior
 rejects,
if
you
do
not
offer
proper
remonstrance
when
a
superior
commits
a
 transgression
and
do
not
widely
recommend
subordinates
who
do
good,
if
 you
do
not
obey
your
superior
and
you
join
together
with
those
in
 subordinate
positions—such
conduct
will
be
punished
by
superiors
and
 denounced
by
the
people.

This
is
how
superiors
shall
determine
rewards
 and
punishments
and
they
shall
make
careful
examinations
to
ensure
that
 their
judgments
are
reliable.’”
(66)
 
 o“If
we
look
into
how
good
order
was
maintained
in
the
district,
what
 do
we
find?

Was
it
not
simply
because
the
leader
of
the
district
was
 able
to
unify
the
norms
followed
within
the
district
that
he
was
able
 to
maintain
good
order
in
it?”
(67)
 
 • “If
people
regarded
other
people’s
states
in
the
same
way
that
they
regard
 their
own,
who
then
would
incite
their
own
state
to
attack
that
of
another?

 For
one
would
do
for
others
as
one
would
do
for
oneself.

If
people
regarded
 other
people’s
cities
in
the
same
way
that
they
regard
their
own,
who
then
 would
incite
their
own
city
to
attack
that
of
another?

For
one
would
do
for
 others
as
one
would
do
for
oneself.

If
people
regarded
other
people’s
 families
in
the
same
way
that
they
regard
their
own,
who
then
would
incite
 their
own
family
to
attack
that
of
another?

For
one
would
do
for
others
as
 one
would
do
for
oneself.

And
so
if
states
and
cities
do
not
attack
one
 another
and
families
do
not
wreak
havoc
upon
and
steal
from
one
another,
 would
this
be
a
harm
to
the
world
or
a
benefit?

Of
course
one
must
say
it
is
a
 benefit
to
the
world”
 
 • Impartialitiy
and
the
golden
rule:
“Let
us
consider
the
case
of
a
filial
son
 who
seeks
what
is
beneficial
for
his
parents.

Does
a
filial
son
who
seeks
what
 is
beneficial
for
his
parents
want
other
people
to
care
for
and
benefit
his
 parents
or
does
he
want
other
people
to
dislike
and
steal
from
his
parents?

 According
to
the
very
meaning
of
filial
piety,
he
must
want
other
people
to
 care
for
and
benefit
his
parents.

Given
this,
how
should
one
act
in
order
to
 bring
about
such
a
state
of
affairs?

Should
one
first
care
for
and
benefit
the
 parents
of
another,
expecting
that
they
in
turn
will
respond
by
caring
for
and
 benefitting
one’s
own
parents?

Or
should
one
first
dislike
and
steal
from
 other
people’s
parents,
expecting
that
they
in
turn
will
respond
by
caring
for
 and
benefitting
one’s
own
parents?

Clearly
one
must
first
care
for
and
 benefit
the
parents
of
others
in
order
to
expect
that
they
in
turn
will
respond
 by
caring
for
and
benefitting
one’s
own
parents.

And
so
for
such
mutually
 filial
sons
to
realize
unlimited
good
results,
must
they
not
first
care
for
and
 benefit
other
people’s
parents?

Or
should
they
let
it
be
the
case
that
filial
 sons
are
the
exception
and
not
the
rule
among
the
people
of
the
 world?...anyone
who
cares
for
others
will
receive
care
from
them
while
 anyone
who
dislikes
others
will
in
turn
be
disliked.
And
so
I
don’t
see
what
 
 7
 reason
any
person
in
the
world
who
has
heard
about
impartiality
can
give
for
 condemning
it”
(74‐75)
 
 o“Now
as
for
impartially
caring
for
and
benefitting
one
another,
such
 things
are
incalculably
beneficial
and
easy
to
practice.

The
only
 problem
is
that
there
are
no
superiors
who
take
delight
in
them.

If
 only
there
were
superiors
who
delighted
in
them,
who
encouraged
 their
practice
through
rewards
and
praise,
and
threatened
those
 who
violate
them
with
penalties
and
punishments,
I
believe
that
the
 people
would
take
to
impartially
caring
for
and
benefitting
one
 another
just
as
naturally
as
fire
rises
up
and
water
flows
down.

One
 could
not
stop
them
from
being
practiced
anywhere
in
the
world”
 (76)
 
 • 
“Now
suppose
there
is
someone
who
does
the
following:
when
they
see
a
 little
black
they
say
that
it
is
black
but
when
they
see
a
lot
of
black
they
say
 that
it
is
white.

We
would
just
have
to
say
that
such
a
person
cannot
 distinguish
between
black
and
white.

Or
suppose
that
when
they
taste
a
little
 bitterness
they
say
that
it
is
bitter,
but
when
they
taste
a
lot
of
bitterness
they
 say
that
it
is
sweet.

We
would
just
have
to
say
that
such
a
person
cannot
 distinguish
between
bitter
and
sweet.

But
now
people
see
a
small
wrong
and
 know
enough
to
condemn
it
but
see
the
great
wrong
of
attacking
another
 state
and
do
not
know
enough
to
condemn
it.

Rather,
they
praise
this
and
 declare
that
it
is
the
right
thing
to
do.

Can
they
be
said
to
understand
the
 difference
between
right
and
wrong?

This
is
how
we
know
that
the
 gentlemen
of
the
world
are
confused
about
the
difference
between
right
and
 wrong”
(77‐78)
 
 • MOURNING:
“It
is
also
said
that
the
most
noble
of
people
uphold
the
rites
of
 mourning
to
the
point
where
they
cannot
rise
up
without
assistance
and
 cannot
walk
without
a
cane
and
they
follow
these
practices
for
three
years.

 This
is
what
would
happen
if
the
state
took
such
teachings
as
its
moden
and
 followed
them
as
its
Way.

Should
kings,
dukes,
and
other
great
men
follow
 such
practices,
they
will
not
be
able
to
come
early
to
court
and
retire
late
in
 order
to
hear
litigation
and
carry
out
the
affairs
of
the
government.

Should
 officers
and
officials
follow
such
practices,
they
would
be
unable
to
 administer
the
Five
Offices
and
Six
Treasuries
in
order
to
ensure
that
crops
 and
timber
are
harvested
and
the
granaries
kept
full…And
so
lavish
funerals
 entail
burying
a
great
deal
of
wealth,
and
prolonged
mourning
entails
 prohibiting
people
from
pursuing
their
vocations
for
an
extended
period
of
 time.

The
former
takes
wealth
that
has
already
been
created
and
buries
it,
 while
the
latter
prohibits
new
members
of
society
from
being
born
for
an
 extended
period
of
time.

To
pursue
wealth
in
this
manner
is
like
seeking
a
 harvest
while
prohibiting
ploughing!

Such
practices
have
nothing
to
offer
in
 regard
to
explaining
how
to
become
wealthy.

And
so
we
now
know
that
 lavish
funerals
and
prolonged
mourning
cannot
enrich
one’s
state”
(83)
 
 8
 
 • Heaven
as
absolute:
“I
hold
to
the
will
of
Heaven
as
a
wheelwright
holds
to
 his
compass
and
a
carpenter
his
square.

Wheelwrights
and
carpenters
hold
 fast
to
their
compasses
and
squares
in
order
to
gauge
what
is
round
and
 square
throughout
the
world
saying,
‘What
is
plumb
with
this
is
true,
what
is
 not
is
false!’

The
books
of
all
the
gentlement
in
the
world
today
are
so
 numerous
that
they
cannot
be
exhaustively
catalogued
and
their
teachings
 and
maxims
are
more
than
can
be
counted.

Above
they
offer
their
opinions
 to
the
feudal
lords
and
below
they
expound
them
to
various
men
of
worth.
 But
they
are
far
from
what
is
benevolent
and
right!

How
do
I
know
this?

I
 say,
‘I
measure
them
with
the
clearest
standard
in
all
the
world.’
(94)
 
 • Ghosts:
“If
the
ability
of
ghosts
and
spirits
to
reward
the
worthy
and
punish
 the
wicked
could
be
firmly
established
as
fact
throughout
the
empire
and
 among
the
common
people,
it
would
surely
bring
order
to
the
state
and
great
 benefit
to
the
people.

If
state
officials
are
dishonest
of
corrupt
in
carrying
out
 their
duties
or
men
and
women
engage
in
illicit
relationships,
the
ghosts
and
 spirits
will
see
them!

If
the
people
turn
to
licentiousness,
violence,
rebellion,
 theft,
or
roberry
and
use
weapons,
poisons,
water,
or
fire
to
attack
travelers
 on
the
roads
and
byways
and
rob
their
carriages,
horses,
coats,
and
furs
in
 order
to
profit
themselves00there
are
ghosts
and
spirits
who
will
see
them!

 And
so,
state
officials
will
not
dare
to
be
dishonest
or
corrupt.

When
they
see
 good
they
will
not
dare
to
withhold
punishment.

Thereupon,
there
will
be
an
 end
to
the
common
people
turning
to
licentiousness,
violence,
rebellion,
 theft,
or
roberry
and
using
weapons,
poisons,
water,
or
fire
to
attack
 travelers
on
the
roads
and
byways
and
rob
their
carriages,
horses,
coats,
and
 furs
in
order
to
profit
themselves.

And
so
the
world
will
be
well0ordered.”
 (104)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 9
 Mencius
(Mengzi)
 Becca
Goldstein
 
 Mencius
was
a
Confucian
philosopher
who
tried
to
promote
Confucius’
 philosophy,
and
to
counter
the
philosophies
of
Mozi
and
Yang
Zhu,
in
his
own
time
 (which
was
long
after
Confucius
had
died).
Whereas
Confucius
did
not
consider
the
 issue
of
human
nature
relevant
to
discussions
of
ritual
and
self‐cultivation,
human
 nature
as
essentially
good
is
a
central
tenet
of
Mencius’
philosophy
and
he
used
the
 idea
of
human
nature
as
good
to
promote
Confucian
adherence
to
ritual
and
filial
 piety.
He
believed
peoples’
natural
tendencies
to
love
their
family
members
were
a
 part
of
the
Way.
He
believed
that
social
classes
and
distinctions
(i.e.,
some
people
 are
merchants
and
some
are
craftsmen)
were
important
and
natural.
A
metaphor
of
 central
importance
to
Mencius
is
that
of
the
seed,
which
when
placed
in
good
soil
 has
the
capacity
to
become
a
great
tree
but
will
rot
if
placed
in
bad
soil.
 
 
 On
human
nature:


 
 Human
nature
is
essentially
good,
but
humans
are
not
necessarily
good.
That
 is,
all
humans
are
born
with
tendencies
towards
goodness
and
compassion,
but
 these
tendencies
can
cultivated
and
improved
by
a
positive
environment
and
 adherence
to
ritual,
or
snuffed
out
by
a
negative
environment
and
an
abandonment
 of
ritual.

Evidence
of
human
goodness
can
be
found
in
the
natural
tendency
to
save
 a
child
who
has
fallen
into
a
well
(whether
it’s
your
child
or
not)
and
to
bury
one’s
 parents
respectfully
(in
contrast
to
the
Mohist
view
that
funerals
should
be
very
 Spartan).
 
 On
government:

 Gaining
the
support
of
the
people
is
the
basis
for
legitimate
government,
as
it
 is
the
response
of
the
people
that
reveals
who
has
the
authority
from
Heaven
to
take
 up
the
position
of
king.
Only
the
ruler
who
practices
benevolent
government
can
 draw
the
allegiance
of
the
people.
A
great
ruler
will
be
more
concerned
with
 “benevolence
and
righteousness”
than
profit.
States
should
not
be
preoccupied
with
 growing
larger
than
other
states;
it
is
the
way
of
some
states
to
be
large
and
others
 to
be
small.
Like
Confucius,
he
believed
that
good
government
was
an
extension
of
 proper/harmonious
filial
and
community
relations.
One
should
be
extremely
loyal
 to
family,
somewhat
loyal
to
village
of
origin,
and
somewhat
loyal
to
state.
 
 On
cosmology:
 
 No
mention
of
spirits,
but
Heaven
is
the
source
of
our
positive
natural
 tendencies,
and
we
can
serve
Heaven
by
cultivating
these
tendencies.
Also,
Heaven
 bestows
the
authority
for
legitimate
kings.
 
 On
morality,
education,
ritual:

 Ritual
is
extremely
important,
but
Mencius,
like
Confucius,
believed
that
 ritual
must
be
modified
to
accord
with
the
particular
situation.
Famous
example:
it
 
 10
 is
ritualistic
not
to
touch
one’s
sister‐in‐law,
but
it
is
right
to
pull
her
from
the
river
 if
she
is
drowning.
 People’s
tendencies
are
moral,
but
they
must
have
moral
teachers
and
they
 must
choose
to
follow
a
moral
philosophy
(i.e.
Mencius/Confucius,
not
 Mozi/Gaozi/Yang
Zhu)
in
order
to
become
moral
people.
 
 Self‐cultivation:
 Self‐cultivation
is
centrally
important
for
Mencius,
one
must
make
conscious
 choices
to
be
in
a
positive
environment
in
order
to
be
a
good
person.
Schools
and
 teachers
are
vehicles
for
self‐cultivation.
 
 
 School
of
thought:
Confucian
 
 Writing
style:

Prose/pithy
sayings.
Organzied
into
books
and
mini‐chapters
like
the
 Analects,
but
with
each
“chapter”
much,
much
longer
than
the
average
one
in
the
 Analects.
Mencius
also
makes
ample
use
of
reconstructed
dialogues
between
his
 students
and
between
himself
and
his
students,
and
between
himself
and
other
 philosophers.
 
 
 Important
quotes:

 
 “It
is
the
essence
of
things
to
be
unequal.
One
thing
is
twice
or
five
times
more
than
 another,
another
ten
or
a
hundred
times
more,
another
a
thousand
or
ten
thousand
 times
more.
If
you
line
them
up
and
identify
them,
this
will
bring
chaos
to
the
world.
 If
a
great
shoe
and
a
shoddy
shoe
are
the
same
price,
will
anyone
make
the
former?
 If
we
follow
the
Way
of
Xuzi,
we
will
lead
each
other
into
artifice.
How
can
this
bring
 order
to
the
state?”
 
 “That
by
means
of
which
gentlemen
differ
from
others
is
that
they
preserve
their
 hearts.
Gentlemen
preserve
their
hearts
through
benevolence
and
through
 propriety.
The
benevolent
love
others,
and
those
who
have
propriety
respect
others.
 Those
who
love
others
are
generally
loved
by
others.
Those
who
respect
others
are
 generally
respected
by
others.”
 
 Mengzi
said,
“Can
you,
sir,
following
the
nature
of
the
willow
tree,
make
it
into
cups
 and
bowls?
You
must
violate
and
rob
the
willow
tree,
and
only
then
can
you
make
it
 into
cups
and
bowls.
If
you
must
violate
and
rob
the
willow
tree
in
order
to
make
it
 into
cups
and
bowls,
must
you
also
violate
and
rob
people
in
order
to
make
them
 benevolent
and
righteous?
If
there
is
something
that
leads
people
to
regard
 benevolence
and
righteousness
as
misfortunes
for
them,
it
will
surely
be
your
 doctrine,
will
it
not?”
 
 
 11
 “From
this
we
can
see
that
if
one
is
without
the
heart
of
compassion,
one
is
not
a
 human.
If
one
is
without
the
heart
of
disdain,
one
is
not
a
human.
If
one
is
without
 the
heart
of
deference,
one
is
not
a
human.
If
one
is
without
the
heart
of
approval
 and
disapproval,
one
is
not
a
human.
The
heart
of
compassion
is
the
sprout
of
 benevolence.
The
heart
of
disdain
is
the
sprout
of
righteousness.
The
heart
of
 deference
is
the
sprout
of
propriety.
The
heart
of
approval
and
disapproval
is
the
 sprout
of
wisdom.
People
having
these
four
sprouts
is
like
their
having
four
limbs.
 To
have
these
four
sprouts
but
to
say
of
oneself
that
one
is
unable
to
be
virtuous
is
 to
steal
from
oneself.
To
say
that
one’s
ruler
is
unable
to
be
virtuous
is
to
steal
from
 one’s
ruler.
In
general,
having
these
four
sprouts
within
oneself,
if
one
knows
to
fill
 them
all
out,
it
will
be
like
a
fire
starting
up,
a
spring
breaking
through!
If
one
can
 merely
fill
them
out,
they
will
be
sufficient
to
care
for
all
within
the
Four
Seas.
If
one
 merely
fails
to
fill
them
out,
they
will
be
insufficient
to
serve
one’s
parents.”
 
 Mengzi
said,
“In
years
of
plenty,
most
young
men
are
gentle;
in
years
of
poverty,
 most
young
men
are
cruel.
It
is
not
that
the
potential
that
Heaven
confers
on
them
 varies
like
this.
They
are
like
this
because
of
that
by
which
their
hearts
are
sunk
and
 drowned.
 “Consider
barley.
Sow
the
seeds
and
cover
them.
The
soil
is
the
same
and
the
time
of
 planting
is
also
the
same.
They
grow
rapidly,
and
by
the
time
of
the
summer
solstice
 thye
have
all
ripened.
Although
there
are
some
difference,s
these
are
due
to
the
 richness
of
the
soil,
and
to
the
unevenness
in
all
are
similar.
Hy
would
one
have
any
 doubt
about
this
when
it
comes
to
humans
alone?
We
and
the
sage
are
of
the
same
 kind.
Hence,
Longzi
said,
‘When
one
makes
a
shoe
for
a
foot
one
has
not
seen,
we
 know
that
one
will
not
make
a
basket.’
The
similarity
of
all
the
shoes
in
the
world
is
 due
to
the
fact
that
the
feet
of
the
world
are
the
same.”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 12
 The
Daodejing
­
Laozi
 Miranda
Beltzer
 
 
 Little
is
known
about
Laozi;
The
Daodejing
could
be
a
bunch
of
different
texts
 by
different
authors
all
compiled
together,
or
Laozi
could
have
written
it
all.

Puett
 interprets
it
as
a
coherent
text.

The
text
itself
is
contradictory
at
times,
but
 reconciling
these
contradictions
is
part
of
learning
Laozi’s
teachings.

Instead
of
 trying
to
understand
what
each
different
line
means,
we
should
read
the
whole
 thing
and
absorb
the
meaning
as
a
whole.

The
Way
is
the
oneness
that
everything
 came
from
and
returns
to,
without
differentiation.

We
should
strive
to
become
 closer
to
the
Way
through
nonaction.

Instead
of
trying
to
act
on
our
desires,
we
 should
aim
to
eliminate
desires
and
just
be,
like
“unhewn
wood.”

Like
Confucius,
 Laozi
is
all
about
sensing
the
situation
and
responding
accordingly.

Don’t
try
to
 change
the
situation;
go
with
the
flow.

 
 
 On
human
nature:

Humans
foolishly
value
all
the
wrong
things:
strength,
power,
 differentiation,
individuals.

We
need
to
see
everything
as
related
instead
of
 different.

There
is
no
good
or
bad
–
it’s
all
one.

Humans
are
not
particularly
special
 beings
in
the
world;
we
are
just
things
among
other
things
in
the
Way.

Because
only
 humans
can
think
and
have
desires,
we
often
upset
the
harmony
of
the
Way
by
 acting
intentionally
and
altering
nature.
We
can
become
closer
to
the
Way
by
 eliminating
desires
and
not
acting.
 
 On
government:
Keep
the
people
without
knowledge.

Don’t
try
to
be
righteous,
just
 try
to
be
simple.

A
good
government
would
do
very
little,
but
would
create
an
 environment
where
people
don’t
look
for
profit.

Leaders
should
not
take
bold
 action,
but
should
subtly
shape
the
situation
toward
what
they
need
to
achieve.

 Puett
used
the
example
of
Ronald
Reagan
as
a
Laozian
–
instead
of
a
super‐partisan
 Republican
pushing
for
lower
taxes,
he
became
a
genial
personality
who
created
a
 world
where
high
taxes
were
unthinkable.

In
terms
of
military
strategy,
leaders
 should
not
invade
enemies
first.

Think
martial
arts
–
instead
of
winning
by
brute
 force,
you
take
advantage
of
your
enemy’s
weak
moment
and
make
a
small
move.

 Wait
until
the
enemy
has
invaded
you
and
becomes
overextended,
overtaxed,
low
 on
food,
then
attack
their
supply
lines.

They
will
have
to
stop
when
the
state
has
 overextended
itself
too
much
and
has
exhausted
its
resources.

Laws
–
since
right
 and
wrong
reactions
are
defined
situationally
and
axiomatically,
laws
should
not
be
 clearly
written,
but
judged
on
the
situation.
 
 On
cosmology:

Heaven
and
earth
are
one
(because
everything
is
one).

Heaven
is
 the
Way.

The
Way
will
right
everything
if
we
stop
trying
to
fight
it.
 
 On
morality,
education,
ritual:

You
learn
to
be
better
by
getting
closer
to
the
way.

 Nonaction.

Going
with
the
flow
in
situations.

Rituals
are
okay
for
doing
this
(in
that
 
 13
 they
are
situation‐specific
responses),
but
they
become
rote,
which
is
bad,
because
 you
are
no
longer
flexible
and
in
the
moment.
 
 Self‐cultivation:

Basically
the
best
thing
you
can
be
a
medium
through
which
the
 Way
can
act.

Do
this
by
eliminating
desires,
living
a
frugal
lifestyle,
giving
up
 excesses
of
emotion,
material
things,
being
kind
to
others,
not
really
acting.
 
 
 School
of
thought:
Daoist.
 
 Writing
style:

Poetic.

Often
repetitive,
confusing.
 
 
 Important
quotes:


 
 Everyone
in
the
world
knows
that
when
the
beautiful
strives
to
be
beautiful,
it
is
 repulsive.
 Everyone
knows
that
when
the
good
strives
to
be
good,
it
is
no
good.

 And
so,
 To
have
and
to
lack
generate
each
other.
 Difficult
and
easy
give
form
to
each
other.
 Long
an
short
off‐set
each
other.
 High
and
low
incline
come
into
each
other.
 Note
and
rhythm
harmonize
with
each
other.
 Before
and
after
follow
each
other.
 This
is
why
sages
abide
in
the
business
of
nonaction,

 and
practice
the
teaching
that
is
without
words.
 They
work
with
the
myriad
creatures
and
turn
none
away.
 They
produce
without
possessing.
 They
act
with
no
expectation
of
reward.
 When
their
work
is
done,
they
do
not
linger.
 And,
by
not
lingering,
merit
never
deserts
them.
(163‐4)
 
 The
highest
good
is
like
water.
 Water
is
good
at
benefiting
the
myriad
creatures,
while
not
contending
with
them.
 (166)
 
 To
produce
without
possessing;
 To
act
with
no
expectation
of
reward;
 To
lead
without
lording
over;
 Such
is
Enigmatic
Virtue!
(167)
 
 Thirty
spokes
are
joined
in
the
hub
of
a
wheel.


 But
only
by
relying
on
what
is
not
there,
do
we
have
use
of
the
carriage.

 By
adding
and
removing
clay
we
form
a
vessel.
 
 14
 But
only
by
relying
on
what
is
not
there,
do
we
have
use
of
the
vessel.
 By
carving
out
doors
and
windows
do
we
make
a
room.
 But
only
by
relying
on
what
is
not
there,
do
we
have
use
of
the
room.
 And
so,
what
is
there
is
the
basis
for
profit;
 What
is
not
there
is
the
basis
for
use.
(167)
 
 It
returns
to
its
home,
back
before
there
were
things.
 This
is
called
the
formless
form,
the
image
of
no
thing.
 …
 Hold
fast
to
the
Way
of
old,
in
order
to
control
what
is
here
today.
 The
ability
to
know
the
ancient
beginnings,
this
is
called
the
thread
of
the
Way.
 (169)
 
 Who
can,
through
stillness,
gradually
make
muddied
water
clear?
 Who
can,
through
movement,
gradually
stir
to
life
what
has
long
been
still?
(170)
 
 The
greatest
of
rulers
is
but
a
shadowy
presence;
 Next
is
the
ruler
who
is
loved
and
praised;
 Next
is
the
one
who
is
feared;
 Next
is
the
one
who
is
reviled.
 Those
lacking
in
trust
are
not
trusted.
 But
[the
greatest
rulers]
are
cautious
and
honor
words.
 When
their
task
is
done
and
work
complete,
 Their
people
all
say,
“This
is
just
how
we
are.”
(170‐1)
 
 Those
who
are
crooked
will
be
perfected.
 Those
who
are
bent
will
be
straight.
 Those
who
are
empty
will
be
full.
 Those
who
are
worn
will
be
renewed.
 Those
who
have
little
will
gain.
 Those
who
have
plenty
will
be
confounded.
 This
is
why
sages
embrace
the
One
and
serve
as
models
for
the
whole
world.
(173)
 
 Those
who
stand
on
tiptoe
cannot
stand
firm.
 Those
who
stride
cannot
go
far.
(174)
 
 The
heavy
is
the
root
of
the
light.
 The
still
rules
over
the
agitated.
 This
is
why
sages
travel
all
day
without
leaving
their
baggage
wagons.
 No
matter
how
magnificent
the
view
or
lovely
the
place,
they
remain
aloof
and
 unaffected.
(175)
 
 The
supple
and
weak
overcome
the
hard
and
the
strong.
(180)
 
 The
Way
does
nothing
yet
nothing
is
left
undone.
 
 15
 Should
barons
and
kings
be
able
to
preserve
it,
the
myriad
creatures
will
transform
 themselves.
 After
they
are
transformed,
should
some
still
desire
to
act,
 I
shall
press
them
down
with
the
weight
of
nameless
unhewn
wood.
 Nameless
unhewn
wood
is
but
freedom
from
desire.
 Without
desire
and
still,
the
world
will
settle
itself.
(180)
 
 Turning
back
is
how
the
way
moves.
 Weakness
is
how
the
Way
operates.
 The
world
and
all
its
creatures
arise
from
what
is
there;
 What
is
there
arisese
from
what
is
not
there.
(182)
 
 Excessive
hoarding
results
in
great
loss.
 Know
contentment
and
avoid
disgrace;
 Know
when
to
stop
and
avoid
danger;
 And
you
will
long
endure.
(184)
 
 The
court
is
resplendent;
 Yet
the
fields
are
overgrown.
 The
granaries
are
empty;
 Yet
some
wear
elegant
clothes.
 Fine
swords
dangle
at
their
sides;
 They
are
stuffed
with
food
and
drink;
 And
possess
wealth
in
gross
abundance.
 This
is
known
as
taking
pride
in
robbery.
 Far
is
this
from
the
Way!
(188)
 
 Those
who
know
do
not
talk
about
it;
 Those
who
talk
about
it
do
not
know.
 Stop
up
the
openings;
 Close
the
gates;
 Blunt
the
sharpness;
 Untangle
the
tangles;
 Soften
the
glare;
 Merge
with
the
dust.
 This
is
known
as
Enigmatic
Unity.
(190)
 
 In
ancient
times,
those
good
at
practicing
the
Way
did
not
use
it
to
enlighten
the
 people,
 
 But
rather
to
keep
them
in
the
dark.
 The
people
are
hard
to
govern
because
they
know
too
much.
 And
so
to
rule
a
state
with
knowledge
is
to
be
a
detriment
to
the
state.
 Not
to
rule
a
state
through
knowledge
is
to
be
a
blessing
to
the
state.
 Know
that
these
two
provide
the
standard.
(195)
 
 I
have
three
treasures
that
I
hold
on
to
and
preserve:
 
 16
 
 The
first
I
call
loving
kindness;
 
 The
second
I
call
frugality;
 
 The
third
I
call
never
daring
to
put
oneself
first
in
the
world.
 The
kind
can
be
courageous;
 The
frugal
can
be
generous;
 Those
who
never
dare
to
put
themselves
first
in
the
world
 
 can
become
leaders
of
the
various
officials.
(196‐7)
 
 To
know
that
one
does
not
know
is
best;
 Not
to
know
but
to
believe
that
one
knows
is
a
disease.
(198)
 
 The
people
are
hungry
because
those
above
eat
up
too
much
in
taxes;
 This
is
why
the
people
are
hungry.
(199)
 
 The
Way
of
Heaven
takes
from
what
has
excess
and
augments
what
is
deficient.
 The
Way
of
human
beings
is
not
like
this.
 It
takes
from
the
deficient
and
offers
it
up
to
those
with
excess.

 Who
is
able
to
offer
what
they
have
in
excess
to
the
world?
 Only
one
who
has
the
Way!
 This
is
why
sages
act
with
no
expectation
of
reward.
(200)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 17
 Inward
Training
 Benjamin
Naddaff‐Hafrey
 
 
 Little
is
known
about
the
author
of
Inward
Training.

It
was
written
in
the
4 
 th century
during
an
explosion
of
philosophical
thought,
and
was
contemporaneous
 with
Mencius.

Inward
Training
is
a
traditional
Daoist
text
focusing
on
the
ways
 through
which
a
person
attains
oneness
with
the
way
(using
numinosity,
qi
and
vital
 energy
as
its
terms).

What
distinguishes
the
text
is
its
focus
on
detailing
and
 illustrating
how
a
person
becomes
one
with
the
way.

By
encouraging
physical
states
 of
calmness
and
openness
through
relaxing,
carefully
measured
prose,
Inward
 Training
trains
readers
how
to
maintain
their
vital
energy
and
let
the
way
into
 themselves.

It
emphasizes
the
physical
practices
which
open
a
person
to
the
Way.

 
 On
human
nature:


 • People
naturally
have
the
vital
energy
needed
to
attain
oneness
with
the
way,
 but
it
is
lost
“because
of
sorrow,
happiness,
joy,
anger,
desire,
and
profit‐ seeking.”

Basically,
you’ve
got
it,
you
inevitably
lose
it
and
you
train
yourself
 to
bring
it
back.
 • Being
one
with
the
Way
is
a
natural
state
from
which
we’ve
moved.

Moving
 back
to
that
through
physical
and
mental
training
is
the
goal
of
this
daoist
 philosophy.
 
 On
government:

 • No
direct
commentary,
except
in
XVIII
in
which
the
text
says
that
rewards
 and
punishments
aren’t
strong
enough
to
alter
behavior
and
that
only
when
 someone
has
the
flow
of
vital
energy
associated
with
the
way
can
they
 control
their
people.

The
text
has
a
more
individual
focus.
 
 On
cosmology:


 • This
entire
text
is
about
the
definition
of
the
way,
and
part
of
the
point
 behind
the
text
is
that
no
clear
definition
can
be
given
but
that
it
is
something
 that
must
be
felt.

It
tries
hard
to
approximate
a
definition
by
evoking
feelings
 associated
with
The
Way
through
the
text’s
prose,
and
it
defines
the
way
as
 the
natural
state
of
undistinguished
energy
which
is
natural
to
all
humans
 when
they
are
in
tranquil,
open
states
of
mind.

It
takes
up
the
daoist
idea
of
 seeing
the
vital
energy
behind
all
things
as
united
and
not
making
false
 distinctions
between
objects
and
beings.
 • Through
the
way,
you
are
one
with
the
energy
of
heaven.
 • The
Way
is
a
harmony
between
bodies
and
vital
energies.
 • Numinosity
is
spirit
and
it
is
what
gives
rise
to
consciousness.

Ghosts
are
 completely
numinous.
 
 On
morality,
education,
ritual:

Is
morality
important?

How
does
one
become
good?

 What
is
this
thinker’s
attitude
toward
ritual?
 
 
 18
 Self‐cultivation.

What
is
the
importance?

How
is
it
achieved?

Do
institutions
play
a
 role?
 • This
text
puts
a
firm
emphasis
on
self‐cultivation.

It’s
obvious
from
the
title
 that
Inward
Training
is
what
the
text
encourages,
as
a
balanced
and
healthy
 internal
state
in
which
vital
energy
is
maintained
leads
to
the
clearing
of
a
 mental
space
into
which
the
Way
can
flow.
 • Idea
behind
self‐cultivation
is
to
make
yourself
tranquil
and
to
be
one
with
 your
environment.

Idea
of
altering
with
the
seasons
but
holding
onto
your
 core
self
is
very
important.
 • Difference
between
daoist
and
Confucian
self
cultivation:
self
cultivation
in
 this
text
prepares
you
so
that
the
Way
will
enter
into
you,
as
opposed
to
the
 Confucian
notion
that
self‐cultivation
is
a
worthy
philosophical
pursuit
in
and
 of
itself.
 
 School
of
thought:
 • Daoist
 
 Writing
style:


 • The
essential
point
about
style
in
this
text
is
that
it’s
illustrative
of
the
 physical
states
it
encourages.

Reading
this
text
is
an
exercise
in
self‐ cultivation
because
it
helps
you
clear
your
mind
and
generate
positive
 emotions.
 • The
text
is
comprised
of
short,
page‐long
expositions
on
unspecified
themes.

 The
style
is
very
poetic:
short,
rhythmic
lines
that
sometimes
build
upon
each
 other
in
logical
progressions
towards
defining
terms.

Sometimes
passages
 will
conclude
with
“we
designate
it
x”
or
a
similar
formula
for
defining
 something
that
is
difficult
to
define.

Also
uses
“this
is
called”
construction
a
 lot.
 
 
 Important
quotes:

Find
5
or
so.

Look
for
quotes
with
strikingly
different
 perspectives
or
especially
unique
and
famous
analogies
(like
sprouts
in
Mencius,
or
 the
four
hearts
passage)
 
 • Vital
Essence:
“The
vital
essence
of
all
things:/
It
is
this
that
brings
them
to
 life./It
generates
the
five
grains
below/And
becomes
the
constellated
stars
 above./When
flowing
amid
the
heavens
and
the
earth/We
call
it
ghostly
and
 numinous./When
stored
within
the
chests
of
human
beings,/We
call
them
 sages”
This
is
the
first
passage.

Note
the
definition
of
terms.

Speaks
to
the
 text’s
attempt
to
make
the
Way
a
more
tangible
subject.
 
 • Original
State
of
Being:

 All
the
forms
of
the
mind
 Are
naturally
infused
and
filled
with
it
[the
vital
essence],
 Are
naturally
generated
and
developed
[because
of]
it.
 
 19
 It
is
lost
 Inevitably
because
of
sorrow,
happiness,
joy,
anger,
desire,
 
 And
profit‐seeking.
 If
you
are
able
to
cast
off
sorrow,
happiness,
joy,
anger,
 
 desire,
and
profit‐seeking.
 Your
mind
will
just
revert
to
equanimity.
 The
true
condition
of
the
mind
 Is
that
it
finds
calmness
beneficial
and,
by
it,
attains
repose.
 Do
not
disturb
it,
do
not
disrupt
it
 And
harmony
will
naturally
develop.”
(50)
 
 • The
Way:

 The
Way
is
what
infuses
the
body,
 Yet
people
are
unable
to
fix
it
in
place.
 It
goes
forth
but
does
not
return,
 It
comes
back
but
does
not
stay.
 Silent!
None
can
hear
its
sound.
 Suddenly
stopping!
it
abides
within
the
mind.
 Obscure!
we
do
not
see
its
form.
 Surging
forth!
it
arises
with
us.
 We
do
not
see
its
form,
 We
do
not
hear
its
sound,
 Yet
we
can
perceive
an
order
to
its
accomplishments.
 We
call
it
“the
Way.”
(52)
 
 • Oneness
with
the
Way:

 Therefore:
Concentrated!
as
though
you
could
be
roped
together

 with
it.
 
 
 Indiscernable!
as
though
beyond
all
locations.
 The
true
state
of
that
Way:
 How
could
it
be
conceived
of
and
pronounced
upon?
 Cultivate
your
mind,
make
your
thoughts
tranquil,
 And
the
way
can
thereby
be
attained.
(54)
 
 • Lodging
place
of
the
way
and
purpose
of
self­cultivation:
 If
you
can
be
aligned
and
be
tranquil,
 Only
then
can
you
be
stable.
 With
a
stable
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Related notes for General Education Ethical Reasoning 18

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