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HIS 111 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Pequot People, American Colonization Society, Paxton Boys

Course Code
HIS 111
Tina Brakebill
Study Guide

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What does it mean when we say that Race, Class, and Gender are socially constructed labels?
These have no meaning because humans are the ones who make up these labels.
For example, societies define appropriate "feminine" and "masculine" attributes and roles. They
are changeable based upon the time and place.
How did the assumption that the Native American peoples were either "savages" or noble
savages" affect how the Jamestown and New England Puritan colonies approached their
interactions with the local Algonquian peoples?
-Saw the natives as an inferior class and affected their interactions as they assumed familiar roles
such as an upper and lower class.
-Justify and/or minimize impact of actions, "destined", and validates assumption of superiority
- Wampanoags wanted nothing to do with the English
- Wampanoags offered help and the English only accepted, because they wanted to create
-English wanted LAND and SEPERATISM from the Wampanoags
- English saw the Wampanoags as "naturally inferior" and had no potential for change
What role did Pocahontas play in early interactions between the English and the Powhaten?
-She was a diplomat & mediator.
-Her interracial marriage illustrated that there was no natural permanent racial inferiority & her
class status was a cultural bridge meaning there was potential to "civilize" Indians.
-Her role in saving john smiths life likely was part of a ritual in which smith was "adopted" as a
What was the Virginia Massacre of 1622 and how did it affect English ideas about Indian
Powhatans attack Jamestown due to the demand of land and labor for tobacco
-English shift to believing= Indians are "NATURAL" SAVAGE
What was the 1637 Massacre on the Mystic (during the War of Annihilation against the Pequot)
and why was it important to Puritans?
Because of land demands, PURITANSattack on Pequot.
-This validated puritan religious beliefs of "NATURAL" SAVAGE
The 18th century elite English colonists tended to view the Indian peoples differently than the
frontier American settlers. Describe these differences and explain how the Pennsylvania Peace
Treaty of 1701, the Covenant Chain, and the Paxton Boys actions of 1763 fit in (illustrate) these
differing views.
The 18th century elite colonial Brits & the Indian people had a good relationship.
-The elites saw the Indians as "noble savages"
-The Covenant Chain: trade & allies & neighbors
-Pennsylvania Peace Treaty:neighbors:"true one people"
-The Paxton Boys: Justified by race: = frontier scott-irish boys "All Indians...amongst us...are our
enemies", massacre of Lenni Lenape in Pennsylvania.
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What was the prophet Neolin's reaction to white encroachment? Did he advocate assimilation,
separation, violence? What was his attitude towards English colonists?
-NO assimilation
-reject white
-bonding identity= RED RACE
What was the Prophet (Tenskwatawa)'s reaction to white encroachment? Did he advocate
assimilation, separation, violence? What was his attitude towards English colonists?
-no assimilation
-reject white
-bonding indemnity: red race
Tecumseh continued with his diplomatic
efforts to stop white encroachment and broker a return of lands believed to be taken fraudulently.
he also understood war was coming so he continued to try and rally Indian allies
What were Tecumseh's specific goals and how did he try and achieve them?
Goal 1: cultural independence
goal 2: political independence... bond: red race.. LAND FOR ALL INDIANS
Plan: negotiate build coalition fight war of 1812:british ally.. Indians lose in war
In what ways had the Cherokee assimilated by the early 19th century?
-adapted class, gender, race(marriage laws, women are =)
Describe the Cherokee's efforts to retain their land. Were their strategies and beliefs the same as
Tecumseh and the Prophet's?
The Cherokee tried suing & signing treaties (they were peaceful)
-Tecumseh & the Prophet fought(NOT peaceful)
-16,000 sign petition to protest treaty echota
Where did the vast majority of the pre-1680s indentured servants in the Chesapeake region
(Virginia & Maryland) come from?
What was Bacon's Rebellion? What effect did it have on slavery? What connection did it have
with white privilege?
-Frontier Americans vs. Indians
-Land competition in south
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