SOC 112 Final: Exam 1 Study Guide SOC 112

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SOC 112
Maria Schmeeckle

In-class presentation about diversity ~ why sociologists tend to study the types of diversity that they study • They study race, class, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship/immigration • They study these because these groups differ in their access to power and opportunity, the choices they have, the social pressure they face, the level of inclusion they experience, and the families they create ~stories and examples related to our national anthem • 49ers player refusing to stand during the national anthem because he didn’t want to show pride for a country that oppresses blacks • Many different races who live in the united states have different versions of the national anthem and many people have different views on this o English version but boy wearing Mexican clothes o Non-English version created by a native American o Non-English, hip hop Spanish version o African American national anthem with black music styles • “Lift Every Voice and Sing”, many people thought of this as they black national anthem Social identity theory and Intersectionality ~basic insights about social identity theory • the self is multifaceted. • Social identity is a person’s knowledge that he or she belongs to a social category or group, together with some emotional and value significant to the person of this group membership ~concepts: in-group, out-group • Similar people are categorized with the self and are labeled as the in-group, and people who differ from the self are the out-group ~main areas of focus within intersectionality theory • Intersectionality theory focuses on social divisions, identifications, and power relations that structure people’s lives, ESPECIALLY THOSE THAT ARE MARGINALIZED. • It takes into consideration the multiple facets of identity and how these intersect with one another. ~how intersectionality connects to privilege and marginality (see also our worksheet from class) • Most people are privileged in some areas and marginalized in others ~what kind of critique did intersectionality theory grow out of? • It grew out of black feminist critiques of White feminism which neglected race and class. Panel presentation, drawing upon intersectionality concepts ~ areas of marginalization experienced by our panelist Dr. Renee’ Watson • She was a female, black, and lesbian ~ nature of struggles with immigration experienced by our panelist Kerri Calvert • She explained to us how hard it is to go through the immigration process ~ how long on average it takes to become a U.S. citizen (slides provided by Kerri Calvert) • More than 10 years ~ areas of privilege and marginalization experienced by our transgender panelist who participated via slides only • He was transgender, which means he is more likely to suffer from depression and anxiety, more likely to be unemployed, less likely to find medical care, his religion doesn’t accept transgender people, and growing up in Illinois where transgender individuals are not widely accepted. • Privileged in that he was white, and he is also woman to man which is less critiqued than man to woman, he comes from a middle-class family, is getting higher education, is heterosexual, US citizen, 2 involved parents. These things have made it easier on him. Supplement to the book: New York Times article by Natalie Angier: The Changing American Family ~ the five specific families that were discussed in the article, characteristics of each and how each one illustrates something important about American family life beyond family structure diversity • Kristi & Michael Burns (blended family), shows the complexity of a bended family and their struggles… blended family is a family with step-brothers and stuff like that. • Schulte-Waysers (Gay dads with kids), still had a normal aspect, one would say home the other would work. Their kids are academically and emotionally indistinguishable from those of heterosexual parents. More and more same-sex couples getting kids. • Indrakrishnans (immigrant family), still had arranged marriage but did not define Asian stereotypes. Asians have the lowest divorce rate, arranged marriages are on the rise • Ana Perez & Julian Hill (cohabitating with kids), people put off marriage until later now, many women have kids outside of marriage, people think there is a high expectation for marriage, many people put it off for money reasons • Glucas (upper middle class nuclear family), seemed like the perfect family but still had problems, even when most of the family members are home they are all in their own rooms, most parents want their kids to focus on school and not house work • Reese family and Matt Tanskley (voluntary kin), they shared grief over the loss of the son and best friend ~ the (many) trends that were discussed, and the directions of change for each one • Birthrate of unmarried woman having kids in increasing • Divorce rate is going down but still high • Gay parents are having more kids • People are getting married later • Asians have the lowest divorce rates • More children are growing up with incarcerated parents ~ group comparisons that were emphasized in the article (the Powerpoint slides from class should help you identify the topics) • Single vs. married in contact with loved ones, single were more in contact • Social class differences in stability of marriage, order of having kids and marrying, lower class families were less stable and had kids before marriage • Husbands and wives and level of education, women have higher education now • Same sex parents vs. heterosexual parents and wellbeing of children, they are the same • Fastest growing areas of immigration, Asians • Racial groups and marital stability, blacks have highest rates of divorce, Asians have lowest ~ Concepts: fictive kin/voluntary kin, gayby boom • Fictive/voluntary kin: people who are independent of biology but closer and more enduring of friendship • Gayby boom: more and more gay couples are adopting and raising kids Smock and Manning “New Couples, New Families: The Cohabitation Revolution in the U.S.” (Reading 12) ~ groups that have higher and lower rates of cohabitation in our society • The most highly educated are less likely to cohabitate, people who have less income are more likely to cohabitate • Marriage tends to be selective of those with better economic prospects and more financial security • Less likely to happen with those whose religion is against cohabitation, who are more conservative, and who are less supportive of equality between men and women • Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to cohabit ~ the authors’ study participants’ reasons for cohabiting and attitudes about marriage • People see it as a way to get to know their prospective partner and evaluate marriage compatibility • Many do it for financial reasons • Many people are scared of divorce ~ findings related to men and women and their levels of housework in cohabiting partnerships and marriages • Men substantially reduce their housework time when they enter either marriage or cohabitation, whereas women increase theirs under the same circumstances Presentation about rules related to sexuality during the 1950s and 1960s ~ how sex outside of marriage was viewed at the time • It was publically condemned, VERY BAD ~ ideological and structural systems of sexual control, how they operated, and group most targeted as responsible • Structural: limited opportunities for the unmarried to have sex including elaborate college rules, especially for women • Ideological: men and women seen as having different interests in sex, women were the limit-setters, men ass aggressors, women had the risk of getting pregnant ~story of Linda LeClair and Peter Behr, and how their story played out • These two lived with each other off campus which was not allowed, they got caught and 60 other women decided to state that they also did something that was not allowed so the court didn’t know what to do. • Linda said that cohabitating wasn’t about sex, it was about security and family and partnership and their lives being intertwined “The Evolution of American Families” (Reading 5) by Coontz ~concepts: filius nullius, female husband, legitimate/illegitimate, industrialization • Female husband, popular in the native American society, a woman would become a female husband and take up a wife. • Filius nullius: European history, child of a not married child, was considered no one’s kid • Legitimate/illegitimate: indigenous societies of northeasters north America did not distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate, they loved all children ~ three groups that lived in early America, their social systems, how they were similar and different from each other • Native Americans, used family ties to organize political, military, and economic transactions • Colonial Europeans, were regulated by the state, had lots of property and inheritance rights, demanded a more properly ordered family, • Africans ~ major changes in family organization that accompanied industrialization (review these carefully, looking at the whole section that discusses these changes) • Separation of home and work • Reduction of household membership to its nuclear core • The fall in marital fertility • The more extended residence of children in parents’ home • The lengthened time that husbands and wives live together after their children left home • The reintegration of women into productive work • The regulation of marriage ~ similarities and differences between different groups of women/wives during the second half of the 18 century up to the 20 century (see section on The Rise of the Domestic Family Ideal) • White middle class women focused more on child bearing, while working class/immigrant/non-white women engaged in paid labor • Tod
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