[PSYCH 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (28 pages long)

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PSYCH 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psychology Past and Present
1/12/17
1) Definitions
a) Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes.
i) Psychology degree
b) Psychiatry: the study of the medical treatment of psychological disorders.
i) Medical degree
2) History of Psychology
a) Philosophers: before psychology became a science, it was a branch of
philosophy.
i) Both Plato (424 BC – 347 BC) and Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC)
speculated on psychological questions without testing their
explanations
(1) Founder of the 5 senses
(a) Hearing
(b) Seeing
(c) Smelling
(d) Touching
(e) Tasting
(2) Yet, there are way more than the 5 senses
ii) Rene Descartes (1596-1650) thought the soul was separate from the
body, and was not subject to physical law
b) Structuralism: an approach to studying psychology in which introspection
is used to determine the basic elements of human thought.
i) Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) was the first scientific psychologist.
He opened the first psychology laboratory in germany in 1879
ii) Edward Titchner (1867 – 1927) was the founder of Structuralism
who opened the first psychology in lab in America at Cornell
University
iii) Structuralism attempted to specify how psychological processes
occurred using only introspection
iv) Introspection turned out to be a bad method for studying mental
events because:
a. Introspection does not replicate across individuals
b. Many psychological processes are not open to introspection
because they are not conscious
c) Functionalism: an approach to studying psychology that tries to
understand the mind by determining its purpose.
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i) William James (1842-1910) was a psychologist at Harvard who
founded functionalism.
ii) James wrote an influential book called The Principles of
Psychology
(1890)
iii) The functionalists were heavily influenced by Darwin’s theory of
evolution.
iv) Functionalists speculated on what sorts of functions an evolved
brain should have, but didn’t test their speculations
d) Psychoanalysis: an approach to studying mental illness that assumes
mental illness is caused by subconscious conflicts.
i) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): was a psychiatrist in Vienna, Austria
who speculated that mental illnesses were caused by subconscious
events
(1) Created the devil on one shoulder and an angel on the other
(2) Became famous because he was the first “Dr. Phil”, yet
didn’t make much of an impact in modern psychology.
(3) Developed ideas based on his own experience not data or
actual research.
ii) Freud is typically not considered to be a scientist because he did not
test his ideas. He developed his ideas based on case studies of his
patients
iii) Freud’s ideas were very influential in psychiatry between 1920 and
1970, but have very little influence on contemporary psychology
because they lack support.
e) Behaviorism: the scientific study of the relationship between behavior and
reinforcement.
i) John Watson (1878-1958) is considered the founder of behaviorism
and conditioned Little Alberts
(1) We are obsessed with things that we couldn't see, the way
for psychology to because a real science isn't in the head it’s
in physical observation
(a) Ex. rat in a cage seeing how the rat did in return to
what we did not what is in the rats head.
(2) Everything is a punishment vs. reward system
(a) Things that have a negative effects we will stop doing
it, getting rewarded will make us keep doing said
thing.
(b) All due to conditioning
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