[PSY-P 303] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (23 pages long)

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PSY-P 303
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1/13/17
Types of Research
Need for Health Psychology
Increase in chronic/lifestyle-related illnesses
Acute disorders:
Tuberculosis, pneumonia, other infection diseases
Illness that you can take medicine for and get over - doesn’t usually kill
you
Chronic illnesses:
Heart disease, cancer, and respiratory diseases
Disease you live with for years before you die
Advances in technology and research
Ex: stem-cell research
Unnatural body parts (ex: transplants)
Physician assisted death
Expanded health care services
Cost is increasing, same number of people are getting sick/dying
Usually covered by insurance
Increased medical acceptance
Shift to working together to combat illness
Theory
Set of analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena
Advantages:
Provide guidelines for research & interventions
Can see what’s already been done & design research that isn’t
repetitive but builds on - saves time and money
Generate specific predictions that can be tested and modified
Hypotheses (have to be testable)
Help tie together loose ends
Multiple researchers’ works can be combined to form a theory
Experiment
Controlled environment
Two or more different conditions are created to which people are assigned randomly and
their reactions are measured
Natural variables:
things you can’t change (ex: age, gender, if someone has a disease or
not, etc.)
Randomized clinical trials:
conducted to evaluate treatments or interventions and their
effectiveness over time
Evidence-based medicine:
medical interventions go through rigorous testing and
evaluation of their benefits before they become the standard of care
Want to know that what the doctor is doing will work safely
Correlational Studies
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Correlational research:
measures whether a change in one variable corresponds with
change in another variable
Results: correlation coefficient (-1 → +1 tells us how strength of correlation)
Closer it is to 1 or -1, the stronger the correlation
+ or - represent positive (direct) correlation or negative (inverse)
correlation
Disadvantage - difficult to determine the direction of causality unambiguously
CANNOT say “this affects/predicts this” because you don’t know exactly what
caused what (could be other factors)
Can’t say b/c not experimental research
Advantage over experiments - more adaptable
Prospective Research
Looks forward in time to see how:
Groups of people change
Relationship b/w two variables changes over time
Conducted to understand the risk factors that relate to health conditions
Longitudinal research:
same people are observed at multiple points in time
More accurate than cross-sectional research b/c you don’t have to assume the
only differences are caused by differences in age
Cohort effect
: “variations in the characteristics of an area of study”
Retrospective Designs
Looks backward in time to reconstruct the conditions that led to a current situation
Disadvantage: relying heavily on people’s memories which might be incorrect
Often revise stories in memories to make more favorable - dependent on your
mood at the time
Were critical in identifying the risk factors that led to the development of AIDS
Role of Epidemiology in Health Psychology
Epidemiology:
study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of infectious and
noninfectious disease in a population
Morbidity:
number of cases of a disease that exist at some given point in time
(prevalence of a disease)
Mortality:
number of deaths due to particular causes
Methodological Tools
Tools of neuroscience
FMRI’s
Allow us to look into a living brain in real time
Used to only be able to look at dead brains
Mobile and wireless technologies
Beepers allow patient to be monitored / report data at any time
Meta-analysis
Looking at multiple studies & combining results
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