PSY-B - Psychology PSY-B 356 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Blood Sugar, Aldosterone, Adrenal Gland

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B356 Exam 2 guide
1.
PSY B356 EXAM 2 REVIEW
The exam will consist of
40 multiple choice questions x 2 points = 80 points
5 short answer essay questions x 4 points = 20 points
Total = 100 points
Content: Material presented in lecture and the textbook, chapters (pages) 3 (61-68), 4 (101-135),
6 (202-203), 7 (223-229), 12 (356-363)
A good general rule is to study especially well any topic covered in the posted lecture outlines.
CONCEPTS AND TERMS
Arousal theory
-general state of activation of whole organism
Yerkes-Dodson Law
-the relationship of performance to arousal is an inverted U-shaped function
-there is an optimal level of drive for a task of a given difficulty
-close relationship of arousal and emotions; early "classic" theories attempted to explain both
-stressed role of autonomic nervous system in experience of emotions
Autonomic Nervous System (controls internal organs)
Sympathetic NS; emergency, fight or flight
-increased heartrate, breathing rate, sweat, release of epinephrine (adrenaline)
Parasympathetic NS
-rest; nonemergeny function; decreased heartrate; increased digestive functions
Theories of emotional arousal:
James-Lange Theory 1890s
-stimulus (e.g., barking dog) evokes body changes (increased heartrate, rapid breathing etc.)
-emotion is our experience of these changes
Cannon-Bard “Emergency’ Theory 1930s
-stimulus evokes single area of brain (thalamus)
-then impulses to ----> autonomic NS
----> forebrain
-are separate autonomic and brain aspects of emotion activated simultaneously
Two-factor or Cognitive-Physiological theory (Schacter-Singer 1960s)
Emotions are determined by two factors:
1. a change in physiological state and
2. information (cognitive appraisal) about the situation
-the autonomic NS (physiological state) determines the intensity of the emotion not which
emotion
Brain mechanism for regulating arousal levels: Reticular Activating System RAS (from Latin:
net”) also called Reticular formation
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B356 Exam 2 guide
2.
-in core of brainstem; projects to cortex like a net
Experiment (Bremer 1937)
-cut RAS at level of colliculi (midbrain) ---> constant sleep
Electroencephalogram EEG
-tool to study brain arousal levels; electrodes pasted to scalp -> amplifier -> chart or computer -
sum or average of millions of neurons
Experiment (Moruzzi and Magoun 1949)
-artificially electrically stimulated RAS in brainstem; measured cortical EEG
-found: beta waves (sign of arousal)
Experiment (Lindsley 1951)
-cut connections to RAS leaving surrounding structures intact; found: constant sleep
RAS has the right connections to be the regulator of arousal:
Inputs: sensory input (vision, hearing, touch) and from muscles, internal organs
Outputs: sends fibers diffusely to the whole cortex
Donald Hebb’s Theory 1955
motivation = cortical arousal by the RAS
Lacey’s theory 1967: arousal is multidimensional
There are at least three different types of arousal:
1. behavioral arousal (activity of organism)
2. autonomic arousal (ANS controls organs)
3. cortical arousal (EEG, beta waves)
-usually appear together but can be activated independently
Biological Basis of Reward
Brain stimulation reward BSR
-electrical stimulation used as a tool to study brain function
-electrical stimulation of certain brain areas functions as a powerful positive reinforcer (Olds and
Milner 1954); studies with rats and humans; “pleasure centers”
-mapped brain areas that would support BSR
Dopamine DA theory of reward; (Roy Wise 1978)
-dopamine neurons generally found in areas that support BSR; drugs that block DA function
block BSR
-drugs that block DA function block reinforcement by natural rewards (food) and most drugs of
abuse; schizophrenic patients on dopamine blockers report “anhedonia” lack of pleasure
-drugs that enhance DA directly (amphetamines, cocaine) are powerful reinforcer
Mesolimbic dopamine system: nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex
-natural rewards and drugs of abuse all increase dopamine release here
Incentive motivation and addictions (Robinson and Berridge 2001)
-older theories stressed hedonic value (pleasurable effects) of drugs of abuse
-new incentive motivation theory adds craving (anticipation)
2 separate processes: craving "wanting" -----> hedonic value "liking"
With continued drug use: craving increases (sensitization); hedonic value decreases (tolerance)
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Document Summary

40 multiple choice questions x 2 points = 80 points. 5 short answer essay questions x 4 points = 20 points. Content: material presented in lecture and the textbook, chapters (pages) 3 (61-68), 4 (101-135), A good general rule is to study especially well any topic covered in the posted lecture outlines. The relationship of performance to arousal is an inverted u-shaped function. There is an optimal level of drive for a task of a given difficulty. Close relationship of arousal and emotions; early classic theories attempted to explain both. Stressed role of autonomic nervous system in experience of emotions. Increased heartrate, breathing rate, sweat, release of epinephrine (adrenaline) Rest; nonemergeny function; decreased heartrate; increased digestive functions. Stimulus (e. g. , barking dog) evokes body changes (increased heartrate, rapid breathing etc. ) Are separate autonomic and brain aspects of emotion activated simultaneously. Emotions are determined by two factors: a change in physiological state and, information (cognitive appraisal) about the situation.

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