[PSYC 3301] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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PSYC 3301
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Scientific Method
Ways to acquire info
o Method of Tenacity
Believe things because “that’s the way its always been”
o Method of Intuition
“I had a feeling” not based on anything factual
o Method of Authority
When you believe something that someone else says just because of your
relationship with them
o Rational method
Take two premises and put them together to make a conclusion (if either
of the premises are not accurate, then the conclusion is not accurate)
o Empirical method
When you get information and collect data on something based on your
experiences (is not the scientific method)
Steps of scientific Method
o Observe behavior
o Form a general hypothesis
o Use hypothesis to create testable prediction
o Evaluate hypothesis with planned, unbiased observation
o Use observation to support, refute, or refine original hypothesis
Use hypothesis to generate a testable prediction (research hypothesis)
o Declarative statement
o Applies to specific, real world applications
o Logical (hypothesis makes sense in the context of what we know)
o Positive (avoid double negatives)
o Involves deduction (more specific than a general hypothesis)
Defining and measuring variables
o Variables
Something that can change
o Independent
Is manipulated
o Dependent
Expected to change as a result of the independent
o Quasi-independent
Something that exists in nature and should not or cannot be manipulated
for research
o Extraneous
Not something in the study that youre interested in. They affect the results
Confounding variables
o Does not effect every group
o Decreases internal validity
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Nuisance variables
o Effects all groups
o Decreases external validity
Hypothetical Construct
o Ex: fear, stress, pride
Validity of a measure
o The degree to which a measure measures what its suppose to measure
o Face validity
“appears” to measure what its suppose to measure as an outside observer
o Content validity
The degree to which the measure incorporates all relevant aspects of the
construct
o Concurrent/predictive
The degree to which the measure reflects a current behavior/predict a
current behavior
o Convergent/divergent
The degree to which your measure will agree with another standardized
measure of the same construct/the way your measure can exclude related
constructs
o Construct validity
If changes in your measure match directly with changes in your construct,
you have high construct validity
Reliability
o Measuring reliability
A measure of consistence
Test-retest
When given a second test twice, see if the two scores are similar
Parallel forms
Two different tests meant to measure the same thing
Interrater
Two or more different people observing the same thing
Split-half
Split a test in half and test that each half measures the same thing
o If something is not reliable, it cannot be valid
Scales of measurement
o Nominal
Don’t have an order (how many)
o Ordinal
Tells you the order (ex. Bronze, silver, gold)
o Interval
Does not have a true zero (starting point is zero)
o Ratio
Has a true zero (zero literally means you have nothing)
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