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[SCI 1102] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (105 pages long)


Department
Science
Course Code
SCI 1102
Professor
Matthew Laposata
Study Guide
Final

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KSU
SCI 1102
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Water
Module 2
Eath’s Wate: Ries ad “teas
http://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthrivers.html
1. Define river
a. Forms from water moving from a higher altitude to a lower altitude, all due to
gravity
2. Describe how the sources of the water in rivers
a. Most of the water flowing in a river comes from precipitation runoff from the
surrounding landscape (watershed)
b. Water i a river does’t all coe fro surface ruoff
c. Rain falling on the land seeps into the earth to form groundwater
i. At a certain depth below the land surface (Water table) the ground
becomes saturated with water
ii. River banks that cut into the saturated area (most rivers do) water will
seep out of the ground into the river
d. Groundwater seepage can sometimes be seen when a road is built through
water bearing layers or driveways
e.
3. Explain how rivers progress from highlands to oceans or large lakes
a. Rivers flow downhill with the ultimate goal of flowing into the oceans which are
at sea level
b. Rivers flowing into oceans rejoins the water cycle
c. Water cycle is always in progress
The River Continuum Concept
http://www.bayjournal.com/article.cfm?article=1867
1. Eplai the river cotiuu cocept ad relate it to eerg iputs, orgaic atter
content, organisms, and physical/chemical conditions along a river system
a. The links between the land and aquatic biological community are strongest in
the headwaters and diminish as the stream becomes larger
b. Land based activities affect the headwaters not only alter the stream locally but
can have ripple effects downstream
c. Streams are organic machines that use raw energy & turn it into different
products or organisms as it flows down streams
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d. Streams begin in the hills or mountains as rainfall seeks low areasa and
groundwater seeps to the surface
e. Headwater streams are often too small to have fish
f. Asa a stream widens more sunlight hits the water, increasing the production of
algae and stream plants
i. Fine particles combined with algar fuel a more diverse community of
insects and fish
g. Warmer temperatures create thermal niches along the stream that increases
species diversity
The Food Web
http://waterontheweb.org/under/lakeecology/11_foodweb.html
1. Define the terms food web, primary producers, primary consumer, secondary
consumer, tertiary consumer, herbivore, planktivore, carnivore, omnivorous, and
consumer
a. Food web: food chains hooked together into a complex of interconnected webs
b. Primary producers: organisms that convert CO2 to biomass
i. Refers to photosynthesizers but also includes the chemosynthetic
bacteria that uses chemical instead of light energy to fix CO2 biomass
c. Primary consumers: 1st level of consumers according to the ecological pyramid
concept
i. Organisms that eat herbivorous grazers
d. Secondary consumers: consumers such as plankton eating fish or predaceous
zooplankton that eat other zooplankton
e. Tertiary consumer: larger consumers in the 4th trophic level
i. Adult northern pike
ii. Ospreys
iii. Humans that eat fish
f. Herbivore: plant eaters
g. Planktivores: animals that eat plankton
i. Refers to fish that feed on zooplankton
ii. Refers to fish that graze on algae
a. inculdes invertebrate predators
i. phantom midge
h. Carnivore: meat eaters; organisms that eat other organisms
i. Omnivores: capable of eating plants, fungi, & animals
j. Consumer: organisms that must eat other organisms for their energy metabolism
i. organisms that cannot produce new organic matter by photosynthesis or
chemosynthesis (producers)
2. Describe a typical aquatic food web
a.
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