ENG 20002 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Hearing Loss, Jargon, Page Layout

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KSU
ENG 20002
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 5: Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose
Determining the Important Characteristics of Your Audience
The reader’s education
The reader’s professional experience
The reader’s job responsibility
The reader’s personal characteristics
The reader’s personal preferences
The reader’s cultural characteristics
Primary audience- people close to the writer who use the document to do their jobs
Secondary audience- people more distant from the writer who need to stay aware of
developments but don’t directly act on or respond to the document
Tertiary audience- people even farther removed from the author who might take interest
in the subject
Reader attitudes and expectations
o The reader’s attitude towards you
o The reader’s attitude towards the subject
o Your reader’s expectations about the document
How will the reader use the document
o The way the reader will read your document
o The reader’s reading skill
o The environment where your reader will read the document
Techniques for Leaning about Your Audience
Determine what you already know
o Demographics
o Attitudes and expectations
o Use
Interview people
Read about the audience online
Search for documents written by your audience
Communicating Across Cultures
Understand cultural variables on the surface
o Political
o Economic
o Social
o Religious
o Educational
o Technological
o Linguistic
Understand cultural variables below the surface
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o Focus on individuals or groups
o Distance between business life and private life
o Distance between ranks
o Nature of truth
o Need to spell out details
o Attitudes towards uncertainty
Each variable represents a spectrum of attitudes
The six variables don’t line up in a clear pattern
Different organizations with in the same culture can vary
An organization’s cultural attitudes are fluid
Guidelines for Writing for Readers From Other Cultures
Limit your vocabulary
Keep sentences short
Define abbreviations and acronyms in a glossary
Avoid jargon
Avoid idioms and slang
Use the active voice whenever possible
Be careful with graphics
Be sure someone from the culture reviews your document
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