BIOL 101- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 21 pages long!)

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5 Oct 2017
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BIOL 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Biology 101 Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1: Exploring Life
Biology: the scientific study of life
Living organisms: can adapt and evolve
THEME 1: Organization (a reductionist approach)
1. Biosphere: consists of all life on Earth
2. Ecosystem: consists of all living things in a particular area + nonliving components of the
environment (i.e soil, water, atmosphere gases + light)
3. Community: the array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem
4. Population: consists of all the individuals of a species: (a group whose members can only
reproduce w/other organisms of a group) living within the bounds of a specified area
a. One distinct population = formed by one species of organisms
5. Organisms: individual living things
6. Organs: a body part that is made up of multiple tissues and has specific functions in the
body (i.e. leaf, stems, roots)
a. Organs can have different tissues→ each tissue has its own function
7. Tissue: a group of cells that work together, performing a specialized function
a. Tissues will only have one type of cell
8. Cell: life’s fundamental unit of structure and function
a. Cell = structural and functional unit
9. Organelles: the various functional components present in cells (i.e. chloroplast;
mitochondria)
10. Molecules: a chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms
Systems biology: the explorations of a biological system by analyzing interactions among its
parts; bigger perspective; global view (an approach on how to study bio)→ to learn about details,
look at the bigger picture
Emergent properties: everytime you move up in the “complexity scale”, new properties will
emerge
I.e. bicycle parts have no function, put it together and it has a function→
emergent properties
THEME 2: Information flow
*Cells store information in genetic material
Store
genetic info + express
genetic info
DNA: A, T, C, G = nucleotides
Gene Expression: the entire process by which the info in a gene directs the manufacture of a
cellular product
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Genome: the entire “library” of a genetic instructions that an organism inherits; collection of
DNA of an organism
Proteomics: the study of sets of proteins and their properties
Bioinformatics: use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of
data that results from high-throughput methods
THEME 3: Energy Transfer
*Energy comes from the sun→ used by plants→ transform it into chemical energy→ used to
produce work→ used by cells
Most energy from plants is lost as heat
Linear transfer of energy
Plants use chemicals from soil and reuse them (recycle them)
*Energy flows
through
an ecosystem in one direction, usually entering as light and exiting as
heat. In contrast, chemicals cycle
within
an ecosystem, where they are used and then recycled
Climate change: a directional change to the global climate that lasts for 3 decades or more
THEME 4: Interactions
Molecular level: interaction within organisms (cells always talk, etc)
Feedback regulation: the output or product of a process regulates that very process
(glucose = high→ cells works to bring it down) if this is lost, the organism is
sick with a disease (regulate based on the feedback)
Negative feedback: a loop in which the response reduces the initial
stimulus
I.e. stop drinking because of vomiting (the more the products, the
less the response)
Positive feedback: an end product speeds up its own production
I.e. sun melting the icecaps
Homeostasis: Ability to regulate (normal state)
Ecosystem level:
Between organisms (leopard chases and eats a zebra) (worm eats a leaf)
With the physical environment (we are cold so we put on a jacket) (eat something bad
and vomit) (I am scared so I start to run)
THEME 5: Evolution (descent with modification)
Evolution: the concept that the organisms living on Earth today are the modified descendants of
common ancestors
Natural Selection: the natural environment consistently “selects” for the propagation of certain
traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the populations
*Structure determines function (giraffes eat leaves from tall trees because
they have long necks)
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