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Final

ASTR 1101 The Solar System Astronomy Final Study Guide.docx

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Department
Astronomy
Course Code
ASTR 1101
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Astronomy Final Study Guide
Jupter and Saturn’s Satellites
Jupiter’s Satellites= Galiliean Satellites
Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto
Synchronous rotation for all 4- Rotates once on it’s axis for each orbit around Jupiter
1:2:4- Orbital ratios of Io, Europa and Ganymede. Gravitational rhythms maintain this ratio
Transit- a satellite passes between us and Jupiter.
Occultation- satellites pass completely behind Jupiter.
Ganymede and Callisto are the largest. Both have low average densities. They are composed of
equal parts of rock and water ice.
Io-
Io and Europa are about as dense as the moon, which means they’re primarily rocky. Only Io
shows no traces of water in it.
Jupiter and it’s satellites formed like a miniature solar system. Jupiter emitted lots of heat while it
was forming, so it’s closest satellites Io and Europa couldn’t retain water, where as Ganymede
and Callisto could.
Io is covered with colorful sulfur compounds ejected from active volcanoes. Tidal heating from
it’s orbit causes it’s internal heat. Most volcanically active world in the solar system.
Rather than volcanoes on Io, there are actually geysers. Sulfur dioxide is heated up in the
interior and then shot out through the geysers. When the sulfur dioxide is released into the
atmosphere it cools down and then snows back down to the surface. There are also lava flows
that are more dramatic flows than on Earth.
The lava on Io has magnesium in it, which gives it a higher melting temperature, which explains
why the lava doesn’t evaporate instantly.
Io has mountains because the lava is tilted during rotation, so the lava piles up.
When charged particles hit Io they knock ions off of it’s surface. This ejected material forms the
Io torus, which is a huge doughnut shaped ring of ionized gas or plasma that sits in Io’s orbit. As
Jupiter rotates, so does it’s magnetic field. This movement, which crosses Io, generates 400,000
volts across it.
Europa-
Io is the smallest world in the solar system to generate its own magnetic field. This means that
Io has a solid core.
Europa is the smoothest body in the solar system.
It’s so smooth because water is brought the interior to the exterior, forming a layer of ice. It’s
85% rocky and 15% ice. Rocky interior. Icy exterior.
Tidal forces are the reason for it’s internal heating. (Just like Io)
The cracks and ridges in the ice were probably formed by the stress Europa undergoes from
Jupiter’s gravity.
Ice rafts- areas are broken off of the surface and shift into new positions. This is where some of
the lines on the surface come from.
Europa doesn’t create a magnetic field of it’s own, but when it movies through Jupiters magnetic
field, electric currents are induced within the satellites interior.
Has an extremely thin atmosphere of Oxygen. Probably results from ions from Jupiter hitting the
ice, breaking off the H2 and O.
It is suspected that there could be life underneath the surface if Europa, in it’s warm ocean.
Ganymede-
Largest satellite in our solar system
Dark terrain and light terrain. Dark terrain is older.
Has a strong magnetic field. Also has it’s own magnetosphere. This is because it has a metallic
core. It could have gained internal heat millions of years ago when it’s orbit was different, thus
causing differentiation.
Callisto-
Numerous impact craters over an icy crust. Surface has dark mineral deposits.
There are a lot of small craters on Callisto, suggesting that they may have eroded away. There
is also a blanket of dark, dusty material on it, which no one knows where it came from.
Has a magnetic field. Because it didn’t undergo tidal heating, all the water should be frozen. It’s
therefore suspected that there is ammonia in the water which keeps it from freezing. Fuck it. No
one knows.
Titan- (Satellite of Saturn)
Second largest satellite.
Low density- mixture of rock and ice.
Has a thick atmosphere, unlike any other satellite.
95% of atmosphere is nitrogen. The remainder is mostly methane.
Could have methane rain and lakes of liquid ethane.
Polymers in aerosols are thought to be responsible for it’s reddish brown color…
It has sand dunes of ice.
Methane is put back into the atmosphere by volcanoes.
Very few craters.
Jupiters Satellites
59 smaller satellites
55 outer satellites has retrograde orbit. They were probably asteroids captured by Jupiter.
Mimas- heavily cratered surface. Has a large crater. The impact that caused this crater should
have shattered Mimas.

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Description
Astronomy Final Study GuideJupter and Saturns SatellitesJupiters Satellites Galiliean SatellitesIo Europa Ganymede and CallistoSynchronous rotation for all 4 Rotates once on its axis for each orbit around Jupiter124 Orbital ratios of Io Europa and Ganymede Gravitational rhythms maintain this ratioTransit a satellite passes between us and JupiterOccultation satellites pass completely behind JupiterGanymede and Callisto are the largest Both have low average densities They are composed of equal parts of rock and water ice IoIo and Europa are about as dense as the moon which means theyre primarily rockyOnly Io shows no traces of water in itJupiter and its satellites formed like a miniature solar system Jupiter emitted lots of heat while it was forming so its closest satellites Io and Europa couldnt retain water where as Ganymede and Callisto could Io is covered with colorful sulfur compounds ejected from active volcanoes Tidal heating from its orbit causes its internal heatMost volcanically active world in the solar systemRather than volcanoes on Io there are actually geysersSulfur dioxide is heated up in the interior and then shot out through the geysers When the sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere it cools down and then snows back down to the surface There are also lava flows that are more dramatic flows than on EarthThe lava on Io has magnesium in it which gives it a higher melting temperature which explains why the lava doesnt evaporate instantly Io has mountains because the lava is tilted during rotation so the lava piles up When charged particles hit Io they knock ions off of its surface This ejected material forms the Io torus which is a huge doughnut shaped ring of ionized gas or plasma that sits in Ios orbit As Jupiter rotates so does its magnetic field This movement which crosses Io generates 400000 volts across it EuropaIo is the smallest world in the solar system to generate its own magnetic field This means that Io has a solid coreEuropa is the smoothest body in the solar system Its so smooth because water is brought the interior to the exterior forming a layer of ice Its 85 rocky and 15 iceRocky interior Icy exterior Tidal forces are the reason for its internal heating Just like IoThe cracks and ridges in the ice were probably formed by the stress Europa undergoes from Jupiters gravityIce rafts areas are broken off of the surface and shift into new positions This is where some of the lines on the surface come fromEuropa doesnt create a magnetic field of its own but when it movies through Jupiters magnetic field electric currents are induced within the satellites interior Has an extremely thin atmosphere of Oxygen Probably results from ions from Jupiter hitting the ice breaking off the H2 and OIt is suspected that there could be life underneath the surface if Europain its warm oceanGanymedeLargest satellite in our solar systemDark terrain and light terrain Dark terrain is olderHas a strong magnetic field Also has its own magnetosphere This is because it has a metallic core It could have gained internal heat millions of years ago when its orbit was different thus causing differentiation
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