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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1001
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BIOLOGY 1001Chapter 1What is BiologyBiology is the study of lifeBio means life and logy means the study ofWhat is lifeThe dictionary defines life as the quality that distinguishes a vital function being from a dead bodySo what is this quality that distinguishes human from a rock Scientists define life with a set of characteristics shared by all living organismsIn order to be alive an organism must 1Be composed of cells Living organisms are composed of cells that have a complex organized structure A cell is the smallest unit of life Tiny organisms water flea can do everything that a human can do body wise reproduce has eyes has a gut2Maintain homeostasis Living organisms maintain homeostasis to stay the same This enables organisms to cope with changes in their environment 3Respond to stimuli Living organisms respond to stimuli External stimuli light sound touch chemicals internal stimuli temperature pain chemicals Examples plants grow towards lightyour body can detect low blood sugar Example if something can do all of these things except one it is not alive4Use and convert materials and energy Living organisms acquire and use materials and energy Nutrients include minerals oxygen water and other chemical building blocks Almost all life is sustained by energy originally provided by the sun Photosynthetic organisms can capture energy 5Grow Growth involves the conversion of materials acquired from the environment into molecules of the organisms body Single cell organisms also grow throughout life but it is not as obvious as the growth of multicellular organisms 6Reproduce Living organisms reproduce by giving rise to offspring which allows for the continuation of life The reproductive process differs between organisms but the end result is the same 7Evolve Collectively living organisms have the capacity for a gene pool to evolve over time A group of organisms can evolve but one single person cannot Evolution occurs through the process of natural selection which is the process by which organisms with specific adaptations reproduce more successfully than others Example Giraffes with long necks can reach food that others cannot All identified life forms possess these seven characteristicsAre viruses aliveViruses do not encompass all seven properties of a living organism Viruses are not composed of cells maintain homeostasis respond to stimuli use and convert materials and energy or grow However viruses do reproduce and evolve How do scientists categorize the diversity of lifeThree major categories or domains of life are bacteria archaea and eukarya Within the three domains organisms are further classified kingdom phylum class order family genus speciesBinomial naming scheme homo sapiens Some characteristics used in the classification of organisms are kingdom cell type cell number and energy acquisition Cell TypeThere are two cell types prokaryotic and eukaryoticProkaryotic cells include the domains bacteria and archaea They do not have an enclosed nucleus the size is smaller and they do not have membrane bound organellesEukaryotic cells include the domain Eukarya They have a membrane enclosed nucleus they are larger in size and they have membrane bound organelles Cell NumberThere are unicellular and multicellular cellsUnicellular cells are organisms that are composed of single cells and contain all domainsMulticellular cells are organisms that are composed of many cells and contain only Eukarya Energy AcquisitionAutotrophic means selffeeding photosynthetic organisms all domains
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