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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1001

BIOLOGY 1001 TEST 2Chapter 6What is energyEnergy is the capacity to do workWork is the transfer of energy to an object causing it to moveChemical energy is the energy contained within molecules and is released by chemical reactions It is stored within molecules such as glycogen and fat It is converted to ATP and is used to perform work There are two fundamental types of energy1Potential energy is stored energy has the potential to do work This can be chemical energy stored in bonds like ATP or sugars electrical energy stored in a battery or positional energy stored in an object2Kinetic energy is the energy of movement This includes light energy movement of photons heat energy movement of molecules electricity movement of electrically charged particles and the movement of larger objects Kinetic energy can be transformed into potential energy and potential energy can be transformed into kinetic energy The Laws of ThermodynamicsThe basic qualities of energy quantity how much and quality how usefulFirst Law of ThermodynamicsEnergy can neither be created nor destroyed by ordinary processesAlso called the law of conservation of energyNuclear reactions are an exception to this law Matter is converted to energySecond Law of ThermodynamicsWhen energy is converted from one form to another the amount of useful energy decreasesNo energy conversion process is 100 efficientExample A car only converts about 25 of the potential energy stored in gasoline to kinetic energy of the car moving The other 75 is lost as heatUseful energy is stored in an organized matterAs energy is used randomness and disorder increaseoExample gasoline is converted to CO2 and H2O as it burns oExample glucose is converted to CO2 and H2O as it burnsEntropy is the tendency towards loss of complexity order and useful energy and the increase in randomness disorder and lessuseful energyAssociate The flow of energy in chemical reactionsChemical reaction is a process that creates or breaks chemical bonds between atoms It converts reactants into productsTwo types of chemical reactions1Exergonic reaction releases energyoThese reactions are spontaneous oThey are considered downhill reactionsoThey have high energy reactants and low energy productsoExample Athletes rely on glycogen stores for energy Glucose molecules are cleaved from glycogen Glucose is broken down in an exergonic reaction that produces heat and ATP ATP is used for muscle contraction Water is lost as sweat sweat evaporates and carries away heat 2Endergonic reaction requires energyoNonspontaneous reactionsoRequire a net input of energy oThey are considered uphill reactionsoThey have low energy reactants to high energy products oThe energy comes from an outside sourceActivation Energy
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