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Topic List For Final Exam (97% in the course

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1002
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Topic list for Final Exam incomplete and subject to changeChapter 34 Digestive systems1Movement of food through the human digestive systemaMouthesophagusstomachsmall intestinelarge intestine2Where proteins fats carbohydrates are broken downaGet mechanically broken down in your mouthbChemical breakdown involves enzymes which occur in thesmall intestinecProtein breakdown in the stomach pepsindProtein breakdown in small intestine too eBile in the liver disperse the fat3Digestive enzymes and secretions where theyre made and what they doaPancreasPancreatic amylase breaks down carbohydrates Lipase breaks down lipids Proteases breaks down proteinbSmall intestine ProteasesEnzymes that break down disaccharides into monosaccharaides lactase milk sugar to glucose and galactosecLiver produces bilecontains bile salts hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends breaks down fats4Describe the digestive organs physically size shape etca3 levels of increasing the surface area undulation villi and microvillibthe larger the SA more the absorption of food per unit of timea high amount of SA provides maximum approach for blood vessels or lacteals for fats to absorb digested food5What processes happens where in the digestive systemFor example Mechanical and chemical breakdown of different macromolecules absorption where bacteria thrive and produce vitaminsChapter 35 Urinary systems6Functions of the urinary systemaMajor functions of the excretory system in mammalsiExcretion of cellular waste products1Excretion eliminates waste and excess substances from the bodyiiMaintain the osmolarity of body fluids1Osmolarity is the concentration of dissolved substances in a solution7Urinary system parts and movement of fluids filtratewastebloodaKidneyureterbladderurethra then its excretedb3 main steps of urine formationiFiltration water and dissolved molecules are filtered out of the bloodiiTubular reabsorption water and nutrients are restored to the bloodiiiTubular secretion wastes and remaining excess ions are secreted to the tubuleivUrine formation and concentration Fig3561vHow it works1Arterioles conduct blood to each nephron2Within Bowmans capsule the arteriole subdivides into numerous capillaries called the glomerulus3The glomerulus capillary walls are permeable to water and dissolved substances molecules and ions4The watery filtrate looks like blood plasma is collected in Bowmans capsule for transport through the nephron5The blood leaving the glomerulus in the arteriole is more concentrated containing blood cells proteins and fat droplets too big to be filtered out6These arteriole then branch into smaller highly porous capillaries that surround the tubule7Tubular reabsorption cells of the tubule remove water and nutrients from the filtrate to be reabsorbed by the bloodaReabsorption of salts and other nutrients is by active transportiGlucose amino acids vitaminsmost reabsorbed2iiIons Na Cl K Ca HCO3bWater is reabsorbed by osmosiscWastes urea remain in the tubule and become concentrated as water leaves8Any waste materials remaining in the blood are actively secreted into the tubule by tubule cells9During its passage through the collecting duct additional water leaves the filtrate by osmosis until the urine reaches an equilibrium with the highly concentrated surrounding fluid8Structures of kidneysaFigure 354
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