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BIO 1201 Test 2 Notes (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
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FlagellaCiliaSame structural design92 Structure only in eukaryotic cells absent in higher plantsFlagella are larger and fewer in numberOther elements involved in movementSliding filamentsProteins involved in movement actinmyosinMolecular motorsproteinsuse ATPCentriolesin animalssimilar to the base of the flagellacilia involved in mitosismeiosisThe problem is the interior of the cell is different than its environment so how do you defend the internal environment but still communicate with the externalTransport materials across the barrier Biological membranes are made of proteins and phospholipidsAn optimal intermediate fluiditynot too solid not too fluidpreserves membrane functionHenriqueHansen 1990Membrane fluidity can acclimateMembrane fluidity can by adjusted by changed the ratio of saturated vs unsaturated fatty acidsIncreased saturated fats increased the fluidity of the membraneAt cold temperatures unsaturated fats would increaseTransport ProcessesActive against the concentration gradientrequires supplied energy ATPcarrier molecule involvedPassive down the concentration gradientdoes not require supplies energydiffusion simpledoes not have a carrier molecule or facilitatedDiffusionnet movement of molecules down a concentration gradient Area of high concentration to lowIf the concentration is equal there is still movementOsmosis the diffusion of water high to lowProblems confronting organismsWhat if the concentration of solutes differs between the intracellular compartment and the environmentHyper toniclower water potentialmore solutes dissolved in ittend to gain waterHypotonichigher water potentialfewer solutes dissolvedtend to lose waterIsotonicequivalent water potentialsequal number of solutes dissolvedno net movement of waterMarine InvertebratesIsotonic with seawaterAccumulate free amino acids to match the tonicity of the seawaterMarine Elasmobranch FishesSharksraysIsotonic with seawaterAccumulate up to 5M ureaFreshwater Bony FishesHypertonic to freshwaterGain waterMarine Bony FishesHypotonic to seawaterHow do cells regulate metabolismHow do cells organize and control the chemical reactions that occur Metabolic TransformationsChemical reactionsSmall stepsControlled processesEach step is controlled by a protein catalyst enzymeBiological Chemical ReactionsRegulated by protein catalystsSynthesis of energy carrier molecules store energy transport molecules from place to place and regulate its flowCouple reactions together so that unfavorable reactions can occur at the expense of reactions that release energyEnzymesProtein catalystsNever used upSpecific reactions require specific enzymes
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