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Biol 1201 Outline14 (got 93% on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
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1Chapter 14MENDEL AND THE GENE IDEAThe father of genetics Johann Gregor MendelMendel was a monk who was trained in science at the University of ViennaThe realization that both parents contributed to the characteristics of the offspring preceded the work of MendelThe favored explanation of how this occurred was the blending theory of heredityBlending theory of heredity the idea that genetic material contributed by the two parents mixes in a manner analogous to the way blue and yellow paints blend to make green This hypothesis predicts that over many generations a freely mating population will give rise to a uniform population of individuals The blending theory fails to explain other phenomenon of inheritance such as traits reappearing after skipping a generationknew that wasnt correct strawberry in the blender theoryModern genetics began with Mendel and lead to the replacement of the blending theory with the particulate theory of heredityThe gene idea parents pass on discrete inheritable units genes that retain their separate identities in offspring An organisms collection of genes is more like a deck of cards than a pail of paint genes can be shuffled ad passed along generation after generation in undiluted formAmong Mendels teachers werea physicist named Doppler who taught Mendel to use a quantitative experimental approach in studying natural phenomenaDoppler encouraged his students to learn science through experimentation and trained mendel to use mathematics to help explain natural phenomenon a botanist named Unger who interested Mendel in the inheritable variation in plantsUnger aroursed Mendels interest in the causes of variations in plants These influences helped lead Mendel to the study of the variation of garden peasWhy peas They are available in many varieties Many different characters and traits see table 141 they were also very easy to grow you can also eat your work and trade themCharactersany detectable inheritable feature that varies among individuals colorTraitsthe possible variance of an inheritable character purplewhite Other advantages of using peas are their short generation time and the large number of offspring from each mating and Mendel could strictly control mating between plants the reproductive organs of pea plants are in its dlowers and each pea flower has both pollen producing organs stamens and an egg bearing organ carpel2in nature pea plants usually self fertilize but to achieve cross pollinationMendel removed the immature stamens of a plant before they produced pollen and then dusted pollen from another plant onto the alterted flowersEach resulting zygote then developed into a plant embryo encased in a seed Mendel could thus always be sure of the parentage of new seedsFor Mendels pea plants the characters and traits he examined were 1Flower color purple or white2Flower position axial or terminal3Seed color yellow or green4Seed shape round or wrinkled5Pod shape inflated or constricted6Pod color green or yellow7Stem length tall or dwarf
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