BIOL 1202 Chapter 26

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201

1Bio 1202CHAPTER 26Phylogeny and the Tree of LifeThe discipline of systematics classifies organisms based on shared relationshipsSystematicsSystematists use fossil molecular and genetic data to infer these relationshipsOrganizing or grouping things helps in dealing with themExample Grocery store or your closetThe same idea holds true for the study of lifeIf organisms or any items are to be grouped then they need a nameIn biology this begins with taxonomy TaxonomyThe origins of taxonomy date back to AristotleThere are many ways that organisms may be groupedPlants verses animalsOne of the early classification systems placed the animals in one group and the plants in anotherThe bacteria fungi and many protists were considered plants while some of the protists were grouped with the animalsSystematics is an inexact processAll grouping methods are subject to problemsPlants vs animals was an imperfect system and as a result didnt lastThe foundation for modern classification binomial nomenclature was developed by Linnaeus in the 1700sLinnaeus also developed a scheme where organisms are classified or grouped into categoriesThese categories are further divided into smaller and smaller groupings creating an organizational hierarchy see fig 263The lowest two categories of the taxonomic hierarchy genus and species make up the scientific name
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