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Biology 1202 Test 2 Guide (Got A+ on the test)

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202
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Biology 1202 Test 2 NotesChapter 26 There are 5 kingdoms in the naming system Monera Protista Plantae Fungi and Animalia This was back in the 1900s Woses 3 domain system Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya Different characteristics have been viewed in the protista group so much so that its now in the Eukarya category There are multiple kingdoms in each domain The system goes as such Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus and Species Taxon taxa The named taxonomic units at any level in this taxonomic hierarchy PantheraGenus This refers to one species in the genus Panthera Pardus is the speciesLinnaeaus asked us to use this hierarchical classification system Darwin provided us with the mechanisms by which evolution results in descent with modification TaxonomyNaming and classifying organisms Systematics naming and classifying organisms according to their evolutionary relationships Phylogenetics reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among organisms Phylogenetic Tree hypothesized genealogy traced back to the last common ancestor through hierarchical branching Cladistics The principals that guide the production of phylogenetic trees These are known as cladograms Node branch points in a phylogenetic tree where speciation events have occurred Lineage or Clade is an entire branch of a phylogenetic tree Taxonomic groups often reflect these A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestor and some of its descendants The fossil record is extremely valuable and the only option for many extinct species However we almost never have a continuous record from one speices to another Cladistic principals allow us to construct hypothesized phylogenetic trees Cladistic Analysis fossils provide morphological data for extinct species whereas comparing of multiple types of traits including molecular structure do so for extinct species Similar characteristics suggest relativeness morphological behavioral Convergent evolution this can produce superficially similar traits that lack homology with one another Analogous traitsLack of similarity among taxa results from divergence Similarities among taxa are a result from convergence The more homologous characteristics shared by two species the more closely they are related to one another Sequences of DNA and RNA are used as characteristics If they are related their sequences will be more similar Each nucleotide is treated as a character Mutations are derived from these states substitutions insertions and deletions Homologies Shared primitive characteristics Ancestral Shared Derived Characteristics are unique to a specific clade The sequence of branching in a cladogram then represents the sequence where evolutionary novelties Shared Derived Characteristics evolved Ingroup the group whose relationships we are trying to solve Outgroup a species or group known to have an older most recent common ancestor This helps identify shared ancestral and shared derived characteristics Parsimony a tree thats the one threat requires the fewest evolutionary events Sometimes the most Parsimonious arrangements for one character are not the most accurate overall Microbes organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope Prokaryotes range in size from about 02 to 10 mm Unicellular eukaryotes from in size from about 10 to 100 mm Viruses are not living things so you cant classify them in to a taxonomic group They are smaller than bacteria 005 to o2 mm is their range of size And they come in many shapes and sizes Viruses have 3 common parts to one another The Genome genetic information can be either single or double stranded DNA or RNA The Capsid Protein coat which
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