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Bio 1202 Notes For Test 4 (got 96%)
Bio 1202 Notes For Test 4 (got 96%)

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Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1202

41510Chapter 38 Flowering Plant ReproductionAngiosperms alternation of generations Fig 3010oMeiosis occurs in sporangia of sporophytesMegaspores female product in meiosis in plantsMicrospores male product in meiosis in plantsoSpores divided my meiosis and develop into mature gametophytesoSpecialized gametophyte cells divide my mitosis to form gametes2 sperm cells go into female partLucky sperm gets into zygote becomes new plantUnlucky sperm fuses with cell that becomes foodoGametes fuse during fertilization to produce a zygoteComplete Flower Structure Fig 382A complete flower has both male and female reproductive parts has petals and sepalsAn incomplete flower lacks any one or more of the said partsMale part called stamen consists of anther and filamentoEach anther contains multiple pollen sacs microsporangiaoEach pollen sac contains multiple diploid microsporocytes microspore mother cellsoEach microsporocyte divides by meiosis to produce 4 haploid microsporesoEach microspore divides once by mitosis to form an immature male gametophyte pollen grainoA single tube cell encloses a single generative celloThe pollen grain matures into an adult male gametophyte when its generative cell divides by mitosis to produce two spermoThe adult male gametophyte is a fully mature independent plant with only 3 cells Female part called carpel consists of the ovary containing the ovule style and stigmaoEach ovule contains a megasporangiumoEach megasporangium contains a megasporocyte megaspore mother celloA megasporocyte divides by meiosis to form 4 cellsoOnly 1 of the four cells survives the megasporeoThe megaspores nucleus divides 3 times giving 1248 nucleioMembranes then partition the 8nucleate immature gametophyte cell into 7 smaller cells one with 2 nucleioThe 7 cells 1 egg 1 cell with 2 polar nuclei 5 other cellsoThe 7 cells comprise the mature completely dependent female gametophyte embryo sacDouble Fertilization of Angiosperms and Independently Derived in a Few GymnospermsA pollen grain disperses to a stigma pollinationThe tube cell grows into a pollen tubeThe two sperm cells travel down the pollen tube to the embryo sac1 sperm fuses with the egg fertilization1 sperm fuses with the polar nuclei to form the first cell of the endosperm triploidMechanisms Used By Plants to Avoid SelfFertilization Bisexual Flowers Also UseFlowers with functional stamens and carpels that mature at different timesDioecious plants that produce plants that are male or femaleStructural barriers to pollinationGenetic selfincompatibility gauged by Sgenes 5060 alleles diploid plant gets 2 allelesDevelopment of the Seed and FruitThe first mitotic division of the zygote is asymmetricThis asymmetry provides the first environmental difference experimented by the differentiating cells and establishes the rootshoot axisThe sporophyte embryo develops from the zygoteThe endosperm develops from the triploid endosperm nucleus42010Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and FunctionHomeostasisTendency of living things to try to maintain their structure and regulate their internal environmentFig 406Negative feedback a change in one direction causes a series of events in the other direction to counteract the changeoooBiological body temperature of 37 C 976 FoHouse thermostatoAll about sensors and effectorsPositive feedback initial change in one direction sets off a series of events that intensifies a change in that same directionoBiological population explosion and child birth laboroPhysical snowball effectOrganization of the Animal BodyCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan systemsTissuesoCells andor noncellular componentso4 types Epithelial cells form continuous sheets called membranes cover body and line all body cavities FORMS BARRIERSimple squamous and line alveoli only one cell thickColumnar line trachea and reproductive organsStratified squamous epithelium
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